FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) by country


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Estimated prevalence of FGM in Africa.[1] FGM is also seen in Middle East and some Muslim populations ofSoutheast and South Asia.[2][3][4]

Prevalence of FGM
 
Country Percentage
of women
affected
Type
Benin 30–50 II
Burkina Faso 71.6 II
Cameroon 20 n/a
Central African
Republic
43 n/a
Chad 60 II, III
Cote D’Ivoire 44.5 II
Congo 5 n/a
Djibouti 90–98 II, III
Egypt 97 I, II
Eritrea 90 I, II, III
Ethiopia 72.7 I, II, III, IV
Gambia 60–90 I, II, III, IV
Ghana n/a I, II, III
Guinea 98.6 I, II, III, IV
Guinea-Bissau 50 n/a
Indonesia n/a I, IV
Kenya 37.6 I, II, III
Liberia 50 II
Mali 93.7 I, II, III
Mauritania 25 n/a
Niger 5 n/a
Nigeria 25.1 I, II, III
Senegal 5–20 II, III
Sierra Leone 80–90 II
Somalia 90–98 I, III
Sudan 50–90 I, II, III
Tanzania 18 n/a
Togo 12 II
Uganda 5 n/a
Yemen 23 II, III

Sources:
Individual Country Reports
U.S. Department of State, 1 June 2001.
Momoh, ComfortFemale Genital Mutilation.
Radcliffe Publishing, 2005, p. 6
(figures from 1987–1999).

 

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is practised in 30 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa,[5] in parts of the Middle East[6][7] and Asia,[8][9] and within some immigrant communities in Europe, North America and Australia.[5][10] The WHO defines the practice as “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.”[11]

According to a 2013 UNICEF report, Egypt has the world’s highest total number with 27.2 million women having undergone FGM, while Somalia has the highest incidence rate of FGM at 98%.[3]

 

 

Classifications of FGM 

The WHO identifies four types of FGM:

  • Type I: removal of the clitoral hood, the skin around the clitoris (Ia), with partial or complete removal of the clitoris (Ib);
  • Type II: removal of the labia minora (IIa), with partial or complete removal of the clitoris (IIb) and the labia majora (IIc);
  • Type III: removal of all or part of the labia minora (IIIa) and labia majora (IIIb), and the stitching of a seal across the vagina, leaving a small opening for the passage of urine and menstrual blood (infibulation);
  • Type IV: other miscellaneous acts, including cauterization of the clitoris, cutting of the vagina (gishiri cutting), and introducing corrosive substances into the vagina to tighten it.[12]

Prevalence 

FGM is practiced in Africa, the Middle East,[6] Indonesia and Malaysia,[8][9] as well as some migrants in Europe, United States and Australia.[3][5] It is also seen in some populations of South Asia.[13][14][15] The highest known prevalence rates are in 30 African countries, in a band that stretches from Senegal in West Africa to Ethiopia on the east coast, as well as from Egypt in the north to Tanzania in the south.[5][16]

According to a 2013 UNICEF report based on surveys completed by select countries, FGM is known to be prevalent in 27 African countries, Yemen and Iraqi Kurdistan, where 125 million women and girls have undergone FGM.[17] The UNICEF report notes FGM is found in countries beyond the 29 countries it covered, and the total worldwide number is unknown.[18] Other reports claim the prevalence of FGM in countries not discussed by the 2013 UNICEF report.[19][20] The practice occurs in Saudi Arabia,[21]Jordan,[21] Iraq,[22][23] Syria,[24] Oman,[25] United Arab Emirates[26] and Qatar.[27] Earlier reports claimed the prevalence of FGM in Israel among the Negev Bedouin, which by 2009 has virtually disappeared.[28]

As a result of immigration, FGM has also spread to Europe, Australia, and the United States, with some families having their daughters undergo the procedure while on vacation overseas. As Western governments become more aware of FGM, legislation has come into effect in many countries to make the practice a criminal offense. In 2006, Khalid Adem became the first man in the United States to be prosecuted for mutilating his daughter.[29]

Data reliability 

Much of the FGM prevalence data currently available is based on verbal surveys and self-reporting.[30] Clinical examinations are uncommon. The assumption is that women respond truthfully when asked about their FGM status and that they know the type and extent of FGM that was performed on their genitalia. However, many FGM procedures are performed at a very young age, many cultures feel a taboo about such discussions, and a number of such factors raise the possibility that the validity of survey responses might be incorrect, potentially underreported.[30][31] In Oman, for example, some do not wish to discuss FGM from the fear that such discussion is showing their culture’s dirty laundry to the world, causing criticism of a practice that they believe is purely religious.[25]

In countries where FGM has been outlawed, fear of prosecution of family members or self, and social disapproval from elders may cause women to deny that they underwent or were subjected to FGM.[32] For example, the self-reported circumcision status of women aged 15–49 was verbally surveyed in 1995 in northern Ghana. The same women were interviewed again in 2000 after the enactment of a law that criminalized FGM and Ghana-wide public campaigns against the practice. This study discovered that 13% of women who reported in 1995 that they had undergone FGM denied it in the 2000 interview, with youngest age group girls denying at rates as high as 50%.[33]

UNICEF has revised its data on the FGM prevalence rates in the Kurdistan region of the Middle East:

Where is FGM/C practiced? There are reports, but no clear evidence, of a limited incidence in (..) certain Kurdish communities in Iraq.

—UNICEF (2005), [34]

Female Genital Mutilation or Cutting (FGM/C): 1 in 2 young girls (15-24) has experienced FGM/C when they were younger in Erbil and Sulaymaniyah governorates (Kurdistan Region).

—UNICEF (2011), [35]

Africa 

Further information: Maputo Protocol

In July 2003, at its second summit, the African Union adopted the Maputo Protocol promoting women’s rights and calling for an end to FGM. The agreement came into force in November 2005, and by December 2008, 25 member countries had ratified it.[36]

As of 2013, 18 African countries have outlawed FGM/C practice, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.[37][38]

Algeria
Female genital mutilation is present in Algeria.[39][40][41]
Benin (13% prevalence, Type II)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Benin.[42] According to a 2006 survey, 13% of Benin women have been subjected to FGM. This is a decline over the 2001 survey, which reported 17%.[43] The prevalence varies with religion in Benin; FGM is prevalent in 49% of Muslim women, 15% of Protestants, 12% of traditional religions and 7% of Roman Catholic women.[44]
Burkina Faso (77% prevalence, Type II)
According to a 2003 survey, FGM is prevalent in 77% of women in Burkina Faso.[43] The 1998 survey, reported a rate of only 72%. However, this is not considered as evidence of an increase in the practice, but reflects the worldwide fact that better and more information is increasingly available on FGM. The prevalence varies with religion in Burkina Faso; FGM is prevalent in 82% of Muslim women, 73% of traditional religions, 69% of Roman Catholics and 65% of Protestants.[43][44] In a 2011 study on a wide range of variables, FGM prevalence characteristics in Burkina Faso was found to be strongly associated with religion, and age being the other important variable.[45] A law prohibiting FGM was enacted in 1996 and went into effect in February 1997. Even before this law, however, a presidential decree had set up the National Committee against excision and imposed fines on people guilty of excising girls and women.[36] The new law includes stricter punishment. Several women excising girls have been handed prison sentences. Burkina Faso ratified the Maputo Protocol in 2006.[46]
Cameroon (1.4% prevalence, Type I and II)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Cameroon.[47] According to a survey on FGM in 2004, FGM prevalence rate was 1.4%. Even though national rate is low, there are regions with high prevalence rate. In extreme north Cameroon, the prevalence rate is 13% for the Fulbe people and people of Arab descent.[48] The prevalence varies with religion; FGM is prevalent in 6% of Muslim women, less than 1% of Christians, and 0% for Animist women.[44] Cameroon’s national penal code does not classify genital mutilation as a criminal offence. However, article 277 criminalizes aggravated assault, including aggravated assault to organs. A draft law has been pending for over 10 years.[48][49]
Central African Republic (36% prevalence, Type I and II)
According to 2000 survey, FGM is prevalent in 36% of Central African Republic women.[44] This is a decline over the 1994 survey, which reported 43%. The prevalence varies with religion in Central African Republic; FGM is prevalent in 46% of Animist women, 39% of Muslim, 36% of Protestants, and 35% of Catholic women.[44] In 1996, the President issued an Ordinance prohibiting FGM throughout the country. It has the force of national law. Any violation of the Ordinance is punishable by imprisonment of from one month and one day to two years and a fine of 5,100 to 100,000 francs (approximately US$8–160). No arrests are known to have been made under the law.
Chad (60% prevalence, Type II and III)
According to Chad‘s first survey on FGM in 2004, FGM prevalence rate was 45%.[50] The prevalence varies with religion in Chad; FGM is prevalent in 61% of Muslim women, 31% of Catholics, 16% of Protestants, and 12% of traditional religions. The prevalence also varies with ethnic groups; the Arabs (95%), Hadjarai (94%), Ouadai (91%) and Fitri-batha (86%), and less than 2.5% among the Gorane, Tandjile and Mayo-Kebbi.[50] In 2001 law was being drafted to specifically outlaw FGM. Prior to this it may have been a punishable offence under existing laws protecting minors from involuntary physical assault.[36]
Comoros
Female genital mutilation is prevalent on Comoros.[51]
Côte d’Ivoire (44.5% prevalence, Type II)
According to 2005 survey,[52] 42% of all Côte d’Ivoire women aged between 15 and 49 had been subjected to FGM. This is similar to the FGM reported rate of 46% in 1998 and 43% in 1994.[44] The prevalence varies with religion in Côte d’Ivoire; FGM is prevalent in 76% of Muslim women, 45% of Animist, 14% of Catholic and 13% of Protestant women.[52] A December 18, 1998 law provides that harm to the integrity of the genital organ of a woman by complete or partial removal, excision, desensitization or by any other procedure will, if harmful to a women’s health, be punishable by imprisonment of one to five years and a fine of 360,000 to two million CFA Francs (approximately US$576–3,200). The penalty is five to twenty years incarceration if a death occurs during the procedure and up to five years’ prohibition of medical practice, if this procedure is carried out by a doctor.[36]
Democratic Republic of the Congo (5% prevalence, Type II)
Female genital mutilation is practiced in the Congo.[42][47]
Djibouti (90–98% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
Estimates for FGM prevalence rate of FGM in Djibouti range from 93%[3] to 98%.[53] According to a UNICEF 2010 report, Djibouti has the world’s second highest rate of Type III FGM, with about two thirds of all Djibouti women undergoing the procedure; Type I is the next most common form of female circumcision practiced in the country.[54] Like its neighboring countries, a large percentage of women in Djibouti also undergo re-infibulation after birth or a divorce.[55] Two thirds of the women claimed tradition and religion as the primary motivation for undergoing FGM.[53] A predominantly Muslim country, Islamic clerics in Djibouti have been divided on the FGM issue, with some actively supporting the practice and others opposing it.[56][57] FGM was outlawed in the country’s revised Penal Code that went into effect in April 1995. Article 333 of the Penal Code provides that persons found guilty of this practice will face a five year prison term and a fine of one million Djibouti francs (approximately US$5,600). Djibouti ratified the Maputo Protocol in 2005.[36]
Egypt (78–97% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
Egypt’s Ministry of Health and Population has banned all forms of female genital mutilation since 2007.[36] The ministry’s order declared it is ‘prohibited for any doctors, nurses, or any other person to carry out any cut of, flattening or modification of any natural part of the female reproductive system’. Islamic authorities in the nation also stressed that Islam opposes female genital mutilation. The Grand Mufti of Egypt, Ali Gomaa, said that it is “Prohibited, prohibited, prohibited.”[58] Egypt passed a law banning FGM.[59] The June 2007 Ministry ban eliminated a loophole that allowed girls to undergo the procedure for health reasons.[60] There had previously been provisions under the Penal Code involving “wounding” and “intentional infliction of harm leading to death”, as well as a ministerial decree prohibiting FGM. In December 1997, the Court of Cassation (Egypt’s highest appeals court) upheld a government banning of the practice providing that those who did not comply would be subjected to criminal and administrative punishments. This law had proved ineffective and in a survey in 2000, a study found that 97% of the country’s population still practiced FGM; a 2005 study found that over 95% of Egyptian women have undergone some form of FGM.[61]
Eritrea (89% prevalence, Type I, II, and III)
The government of Eritrea surveyed and published an official FGM prevalence rate of 89% in 2003.[62] About 50% of the women in rural areas undergo Type III with stitching to close vulva, while Type I and II are more common in urban areas. Overall, about a third of all women in Eritrea undergo Type III FGM with stitching.[63] Most FGM (68%) are performed on baby girls less than 1 year old, another 20% before they turn 5 year old.[62] About 60% of Eritrean women believe FGM is a religious requirement.[3] The prevalence varies with woman’s religion, as well as by their ethnic group; FGM is prevalent in 99% of Muslim women, 89% of Catholics and 85% of Protestants.[44] Eritrea outlawed all forms of female genital mutilation with Proclamation 158/2007 in March 2007.[36][64] The law envisions a fine and imprisonment for anyone conducting or commissioning FGM.[65]
Ethiopia (69.7%–94.5% prevalence, Type I, II, III, and IV)
Ethiopia‘s Regional statistics of the prevalence from the survey are: Afar Region – 94.5%; Harare Region – 81.2%; Amhara Region – 81.1%; Oromia Region – 79.6%; Addis Ababa City – 70.2%; Somali Region – 69.7%; Beneshangul Gumuz Region – 52.9%; Tigray Region – 48.1%; Southern Region – 46.3%. The prevalence also varies with religion in Ethiopia; FGM is prevalent in 92% of Muslim women, 72% of Protestants, 67% of Catholics and 67% of Traditional Religions.[44] This practice is not specifically illegal in Ethiopia. Discussions with government officials and NGOs active in the eradication of these practices indicate that the legal provision for prohibiting harmful traditional practices and the policy statements against them are not, as a practical matter, enforced. There are no documented cases of women going to court over or seeking protection against this practice.[36]
Gambia (76% prevalence, Type I, II, III and IV)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Gambia.[42][47] A 2006 UNICEF survey found a 78.3% prevalence rate in Gambia.[66] According to another 2013 report, an estimated 76.3% of girls and women have been subjected to FGM/C.[67] The age when FGM is done on Gambian girls ranges from 7 days after birth up to pre-adolescence.[68] Gambia’s predominant religion is Islam (90%), and it has many ethnic groups. Prevalence rates of FGM/C vary significantly between the ethnic groups: Sarahule (FGM rate of 98%), Mandinka (97%), Djola (87%), Serer (43%), and Wolof (12%). Urban areas report FGM/C rates of about 56%, whereas in rural areas, rates exceed 90%. A majority of Gambian women who underwent FGM/C claimed they did it primarily because religion mandates it.[67] A 2011 clinical study reports 66% FGMs in Gambia were Type I, 26% were Type II and 8% Type III.[69] About a third of all women in Gambia with FGM/C, including Type I, suffered health complications because of the procedure. Gambia has no law that prohibits FGM, and it does not prosecute it on the basis of any other criminal laws. The Gambian parliament and activists have been deliberating a law to address FGM.[70]
Ghana (40% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Ghana.[51] In 1989, the head of the government of Ghana, President Rawlings, issued a formal declaration against FGM. Article 39 of Ghana’s Constitution also provides in part that traditional practices that are injurious to a person’s health and well being are abolished. Ghana ratified the Maputo Protocol in 2007.[36]
Guinea (96% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
Guinea has the second highest FGM prevalence rate in the world.[3] According to a 2005 survey, 96% of all Guinea women aged between 15 and 49 have been cut.[71]That is a slight decline in the practice from the 1999 recorded FGM rate of 98.6%. Among the 15 to 19 year olds the prevalence was 89%, among 20 to 24 year olds 95%. About 50% of the women in Guinea believe FGM is a religious requirement.[3] Guinea is predominantly a Muslim country, with 90% of the population practicing Islam. However, the high FGM rates are observed across all religions in Guinea; FGM is prevalent in 99% of Muslim women, 94% of Catholics and Protestants, and 93% of Animist women.[44] FGM is illegal in Guinea under Article 265 of the Penal Code. The law sentences death to the perpetrator if the girl dies within 40 days after the FGM.[49] Article 6 of the Guinean Constitution, which outlaws cruel and inhumane treatment, could be interpreted to include these practices, should a case be brought to the Supreme Court. Guinea signed the Maputo Protocol in 2003 but has not ratified it.[36] Article 305 of Guinea’s penal code also bans FGM, but nobody has yet been sentenced under any of Guinea’s FGM-related laws.[71] In Guinea, instead of stopping FGM, the trend is towards medicalisation of FGM, where the mutilation is advertised under hygienic conditions by medically trained staff, who see FGM practice an additional source of income. Per the above 2005 survey, 27% of girls were cut by medically trained staff.
Guinea-Bissau (50% prevalence)
Female genital mutilation is present in Guinea-Bissau.[47] A law banning the practice nationwide was made in 2011.[72]
Kenya (27% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Kenya.[47] The 2009 FGM survey[73] in Kenya indicates that 27% of women aged between 15 and 49 have undergone FGM. By contrast, the 2003 survey reported a 32% rate, while 1998 rate was 38%. The statistical analysis of age group data confirms FGM practice is falling in Kenya. Of those women who have undergone FGM, the vast majority (83%) undergo Type II excision. In the Northeastern Province the prevalence is 98%, Eastern Province is 36% and Western Province 1%. FGM is common among the Kisii people (96%) and the Massai (73%), according to 2009 survey. Many other ethnic groups of Kenya practice FGM.[73] The prevalence varies with religion in Kenya; FGM is prevalent in 50% of Muslim women, 33% of Catholics, 30% of Protestant women.[44] In 2001 Kenya enacted the Children’s Act, under the provisions of which FGM was criminalized when practiced on girls younger than 18.[73] The practice was made illegal nationwide in September 2011.[74]
Liberia (58% prevalence, Type II)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Liberia.[47] Genital mutilation is a taboo subject in Liberia. It is difficult to get accurate data on FGM prevalence rate. However, it is known that FGM procedure is mandatory for initiation of women into the secret Liberia and Sierra Leone society called the Sande society, sometimes called Bondo. A 2007 demographic survey asked women if they belonged to Sande society. It was assumed that those who were part of Sande society had undergone FGM. Based on this estimation method, the prevalence of FGM in Liberia has been estimated as 58%.[75] Liberia has consented to international charters such as CEDAW as well as Africa’s Maputo Protocol. Nevertheless, national legislation explicitly making FGM punishable by law has yet to be passed.[49][75]
Libya
Female genital mutilation is practiced in Libya.[51]
Malawi
Female genital mutilation is practiced in Malawi.[51]
Mali (92% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Mali.[47] According to a 2007 report,[76] 92% of all Mali women between the ages of 15 and 49 have been subjected to FGM. The rates of FGM are lower only among the Sonrai (28%), the Tamachek (32%) and the Bozo people (76%). Nearly half are Type I, another half Type II.[76] The prevalence varies with religion in Mali; FGM is prevalent in 92% of Muslim women, 76% of Christians.[44] About 64% of the women of Mali believe FGM is a religious requirement.[3]Mali has been working on a draft law for many years, but does not yet have specific legislation to address FGM.[49][76]
Mauritania (71% prevalence, Type I and II)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Mauritania.[47] According to 2001 survey, 71% of all women aged between 15 and 49 had undergone FGM. A 2007 demographic cluster study found no change in FGM prevalence rate in Mauritania.[49][77] Type II FGM is most frequent. About 57% of Mauritania women believe FGM is a religious requirement.[3] Mauritania is 99% Muslim. The FGM prevalence rate varies by ethnic groups: 92% of Soninke women are cut, about 70% of Fulbe and Moorish women, but only 28% of Wolof women have undergone FGM.[77] Mauritania has consented to international charters such as CEDAW as well as Africa’s Maputo Protocol. However, Mauritania has not enacted any law explicitly against FGM yet.[49][77]
Mozambique (No Data)
Female genital mutilation is present in Mozambique.[51]
Niger (2%-20% prevalence, Type II)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Niger.[47] According to 2006 survey, about 2% of Niger women have undergone FGM/C.[3] In 1998, Niger reported a 4.5% prevalence rate.[78] This survey data is potentially incorrect because, adjusted for age group, the women who claimed to have experienced FGM at the previous survey still are, albeit in a different age group. However, the 2006 survey implies more women had never experienced FGM than previously reported. The DHS surveyors claim the adoption of criminal legislation and fear of prosecution may explain why Niger women did not want to report having ever been circumcised.[79] A WHO report estimates the prevalence rate of FGM in Niger to be 20%.[80] Other sources, including a UNICEF 2009 report, claim FGM rates are high in Niger.[81][82][83] A law banning FGM was passed in 2003 by the Niger government.[84]
Nigeria (30% prevalence, Type I, II, III and IV)
A 2008 demographic survey found 30% of all Nigerian women have been subjected to FGM.[85] This contrasts with 25% reported by a 1999 survey, and 19% by 2003 survey. This suggests no trend, unreliable past or most recent survey data in some regions, as well as the possibility that a number of women are increasingly willing to acknowledge having undergone FGM. Another possible explanation for higher 2008 prevalence rate is the definition of FGM used, which included Type IV FGMs. In some parts of Nigeria, the vagina walls are cut in new born girls or other traditional practices performed – such as the angurya and gishiri cuts – which fall under Type IV FGM classification of the World Health Organization.[85] Over 80% of all FGMs are performed on girls under one year of age. The prevalence varies with religion in Nigeria; FGM is prevalent in 31% of Catholics, 27% of Protestant and 7% of Muslim women.[44] There is no federal law banning the practice of FGM in Nigeria. Opponents of these practices rely on Section 34(1)(a) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria that states “no person shall be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment” as the basis for banning the practice nationwide. A member of the House of Representatives has drafted a bill, not yet in committee, to outlaw this practice.[36] Nigeria ratified the Maputo Protocol in 2005. A few states of Nigeria, including Abia, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Ogun, Osun and Rivers State have passed laws to address FGMs. These laws are being mocked by excisers who conduct FGMs, and they dare any law enforcement agent to arrest them.[49]
Republic of the Congo (5% prevalence, Type II)
Female genital mutilation is practiced in the Republic of the Congo.[47]
Senegal (28% prevalence, Type II and III)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Senegal.[47] According to 2005 survey, FGM prevalence rate is 28% of all women aged between 15 and 49.[86] There are significant differences in regional prevalence. FGM is most widespread in the Southern Senegal (94% in Kolda Region) and in Northeastern Senegal (93% in Matam Region). FGM rates are lower in other regions: Tambacounda (86%), Ziguinchor (69%), and less than 5% in Diourbel and Louga Regions. Senegal is 94% Muslim. The FGM prevalence rate varies by religion: 29% of Muslim women have undergone FGM, 16% of Animists, and 11% of Christian women.[44][86] A law that was passed in January 1999 makes FGM illegal in Senegal.[87] President Diouf had appealed for an end to this practice and for legislation outlawing it. The law modifies the Penal Code to make this practice a criminal act, punishable by a sentence of one to five years in prison. A spokesperson for the human rights group RADDHO (The African Assembly for the Defense of Human Rights) noted in the local press that “Adopting the law is not the end, as it will still need to be effectively enforced for women to benefit from it. Senegal ratified the Maputo Protocol in 2005.[36]
Sierra Leone (91% prevalence, Type I and II)
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Sierra Leone.[47] According to a 2008 survey, 91% of women in Sierra Leone between the ages of 15 and 49 have undergone FGM. The highest rate of prevalence is in the Northern Sieraa Leone (97%).[88] Type II is most common, but Type I is known as well as Type III. In a 2013 report, researchers first conducted verbal surveys followed by clinical examination. They found that the verbal disclosure were not completely reliable, and clinical examination showed greater extent of FGM. These researchers report 68% Type II and 32% Type I in Sierra Leone women.[30] Like Liberia, Sierra Leone has the traditional secret society of women, called Bondo or Sande society, which uses FGM as part of the initiation rite. 70% of the population is Muslim, 20% Christian, and 10% as traditional religions.[88] Only Creole Christians of Sierra Leone are known to not practice FGM. There is no federal law against FGM in Sierra Leone; and the Soweis – those who do FGM excision – wield considerable political power during elections.[49]
Somalia (98% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
According to a 2005 WHO estimate, about 97.9% of Somalia’s women and girls underwent FGM. This was at the time the world’s highest prevalence rate of the procedure.[89] A UNICEF 2010 report also noted that Somalia had the world’s highest rate of Type III FGM, with 79% of all Somali women having undergone the procedure; another 15% underwent Type II FGM.[54] However, the prevalence rate varies considerably by region and is on the decline in the northern part of the country. In 2013, UNICEF in conjunction with the Somali authorities reported that the FGM prevalence rate among 1 to 14 year old girls in the autonomous northern Puntland andSomaliland regions had dropped to 25% following a social and religious awareness campaign.[90] Article 15 of the Federal Constitution adopted in August 2012 also prohibits female circumcision.[38]
South Africa
Female genital mutilation is present in South Africa.[51]
Sudan (91% prevalence, Type I, II and III)
Currently there is no law forbidding FGM, although Sudan was the first country to outlaw it in 1946, under the British. Type III was prohibited under the 1925 Penal Code, with less severe forms allowed. Outreach groups have been trying to eradicate the practice for 50 years, working with NGOs, religious groups, the government, the media and medical practitioners. Arrests have been made but no further action seems to have taken place.[36] Sudan signed the Maputo Protocol in June, 2008 but no ratification has yet been deposited with the African Union.
Tanzania (14.6% prevalence, Type II and III)
According to 2005 survey in Tanzania,[91] FGM prevalence rate is 14.6% of all women aged between 15 and 49. In contrast, the 1996 survey reported 17.6, suggesting a drop of 3% over 10 years or unwillingness to disclose. Type II FGM was found to be most common. There are significant differences in regional prevalence; FGM is most widespread in Manyara (81%), Dodoma (68%), Arusha (55%), Singida (43%) and Mara (38%) regions.[91] The practice varies with religion, with reported prevalence rates of 20% for Christian and 15% of Muslim women.[44] Section 169A of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act of 1998 prohibits FGM in Tanzania. Punishment is imprisonment of from five to fifteen years or a fine not exceeding 300,000 shillings (approximately US$250) or both. Tanzania ratified the Maputo Protocol in 2007. As with Kenya, Tanzania 1998 Act protects only girls up to the age of 18 years. The FGM law is being occasionally implemented, with 52 violations have been reported, filed and prosecuted. At least 10 cases were convicted in Tanzania.[49]
Togo (50% prevalence, Type II)
Female genital mutilation is practiced in Togo.[47] On October 30, 1998, the National Assembly unanimously voted to outlaw the practice of FGM. Penalties under the law can include a prison term of two months to ten years and a fine of 100,000 francs to one million francs (approximately US$160 to 1,600). A person who had knowledge that the procedure was going to take place and failed to inform public authorities can be punished with one month to one year imprisonment or a fine of from 20,000 to 500,000 francs (approximately US$32 to 800). Togo ratified the Maputo Protocol in 2005.[36]
Uganda (<5% prevalence, Type I and II)
Anyone convicted of carrying out FGM is subject to 10 years in prison. If the life of the patient is lost during the operation a life sentence is recommended.[92] In 1996, a court intervened to prevent the performance of FGM under Section 8 of the Children Statute, which makes it unlawful to subject a child to social or customary practices harmful to the child’s health. Uganda signed the Maputo Protocol in 2003 but has not ratified it.[93] In early July 2009, President Yoweri Museveni stated that a law would soon be passed prohibiting the practice, with alternative livelihoods found for its practitioners.[94]
Zaire (5% prevalence)
Female genital mutilation is present in Zaire.[95]
Zimbabwe
Female genital mutilation is present in Zimbabwe.[51]

Middle East 

FGM is prevalent in parts of theMiddle-East. High FGM rates have been reported in Yemen and Kurdish region of Iraq.[35][96] Among other West Asian countries, FGM has been locally reported, overall FGM prevalence rate is unknown.

Bahrain
Female genital mutilation is present in Bahrain.[97][98]
Iran
Female genital mutilation has been reported in Iranian Kurdistan. It is estimated that in Iranian Kurdistan the rate of the mutilated girls and women is about 60%.[24][99][100] A 2012 study in Kermanshah province of Iran suggests FGM is a common practice in Ravansars’ women, with over 55% of girls have been circumcised less than 7 years age.[101]
Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan (72.7% prevalence (excluding Dohuk), Type I and II
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Kurdish region of Iraq, with FGM rates exceeding 80% in Garmyan and New Kirkuk. In Arbil Governorate and Suleymaniya Type I FGM is common; while in Garmyan and New Kirkuk, Type II and III FGM are common.[102][103] There was no law against FGM in Iraqi Kurdistan, but in 2007 a draft legislation condemning the practice was submitted to the Regional Parliament, but was not passed.[104] A 2011 Iraqi law criminalized FGM practice in Iraqi Kurdistan, however this law is not being enforced.[105] A field report by Iraqi group PANA Center, published in 2012, shows 38% of females in Kirkuk and its surrounding districts areas had undergone female circumcision. Of those females circumcised, 65% were Kurds, 26% Arabs and rest Turkmen. On the level of religious and sectarian affiliation, 41% were Sunnis, 23% Shiites, rest Kaka’is, and none Christians or Chaldeans.[106] A 2013 report finds FGM prevalence rate of 59% based on clinical examination of about 2000 Iraqi Kurdish women; FGM found were Type I, and 60% of the mutilation were performed to girls in 4–7 year age group.[107]
Jordan
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in some parts of Jordan.[24][41] Southern Jordan residents of Wadi Araba near Aqaba are known to practice FGM. The practice is found in Muslim descendants of Bani Sinai tribes, and others living in Gaza and Beer Sheba.[108][109]
Kuwait
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Kuwait in the Maliki madhab of Sunni Muslims. A 2011 study finds 38% of women having undergone FGM, with Type II and III common.[110]
Oman
The practice is prevalent in Oman.[111] A 2013 article describes FGM practice in Oman, and claims the practice is very common in Dhofar.[25] Type I is claimed to be common in southern Oman and typically performed within a few weeks of a girl’s birth, while Type IV is observed in most parts of northern Oman.[112]
Palestinian territories
Female genital mutilation is present in Palestinian territories.[113][114]
Qatar
Female genital mutilation is present in Qatar.[27][97]
Saudi-Arabia
Female genital mutilation is prevalent in Saudi Arabia.[24][41] FGM is most prevalent in Saudi regions following Shafi’i school within the Sunni sect of Islam, such asHejaz, Tihamah and Asir.[115][116][117] In a clinical study, Alsibiani and Rouzi provide evidence of the practice in Saudi Arabia.[118] Another 2010 report claims post-FGM medical complications are an indicator of widespread prevalence of the practice in Saudi women.[119] A 2012 study finds, that of the Saudi women who had FGM, Type III was more common than Type I or II.[120]
Syria
Circumstantial evidence suggests FGM exists in Syria.[24][41] A 2012 conference confirmed that FGM is observed in Syria, particularly in its Kurdish, Shafi’i and minority Muslim groups.[27]
Turkey
Circumstantial evidence suggests FGM exists in regions inhabited by Kurdish populations.[24][121][122]
United Arab Emirates
The WHO mentions a study that documents FGM in the United Arab Emirates, but does not provide data.[97][123] The practice is reportedly prevalent in rural and urban UAE.[124]) In a 2011 survey, 34% of Emirati female respondents said they were circumcised, and explained the practice to customs and tradition.[26] FGM is a controversial topic in UAE, and people argue about whether it is an Islamic requirement or a tribal tradition. A significant number of UAE nationals follow in the footsteps of their parents and grandparents without questioning the practice. A 2012 report published by UAE government scores UAE at 31% on prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation.[125]
Yemen
According to a 1997 demographic survey, 23% prevalence in women 15 to 49; in addition to the adult prevalence, UNICEF reports that 20% of women aged 15–49 have a daughter who had the procedure.[41][97][126] In 4 of Yemen’s 21 governorates, according to a 2008 report, the FGM prevalence rates exceed 80%: al-Hudaydah (97%),Hadhramaut (97%), al-Mahrah (97%) and Adan (82%); Sana’a Governorate, which includes the capital of Yemen, has a prevalence rate of 46%.[96] Type II FGM was most common, accounting for 83% of all FGMs. Type I FGMs accounted for 13%.[96] Yemeni tradition is to carry out the FGM on a new born, with 97% of FGM being done within the first month of a baby girl. In 2001, Yemen banned FGM in all private and public medical facilities by a government decree, but not homes. Yemeni government, however, did not enforce this decree. In 2009, conservative Yemeni parliamentarians opposed the adoption of a nationwide criminal law against FGM.[127] In 2010, the Ministry of Human Rights of Yemen launched a new study to ascertain over 4 years if FGM is being practiced in Yemen, then propose a new law against FGM.[128] A 2013 UNICEF report claims Yemen’s FGM prevalence rate have not changed in last 30 years.[129]

South, Southeast and Central Asia 

Afghanistan
Female genital mutilation is present in Afghanistan.[130]
Brunei (Type IV)
Female genital mutilation is present in Brunei.[131]
Maldives
Female genital mutilation is practiced in Maldives.[15][132] Maldives’ Attorney General Husnu Suood claims FGM was eradicated from Maldives by 1990s, but the practice of female circumcision in Maldives is reviving because of Islamic fatwas from religious scholars in Maldives who preach that it as compulsory.[133]
Pakistan
The practice is practiced among some communities.[113] Gibeau reports, for example, FGM is widespread in Bohra Muslims of Pakistan[13][134][135] The practice is also found in Muslim communities near Pakistan’s Iran-Balochistan border.[136]
India
News reports on petition to end the barbaric practice of “female circumcision” and the Islamic opposition to it indicate that it is performed among some Muslim communities. Estimates suggest 90% of females in the Ismaili Shia Muslim Bohra community undergo the trauma.[14][137]
Malaysia (Type I and IV)
FGM is prevalent in Malaysia.[138][139][140] It is widely considered as a female sunnah tradition (sunat perempuan), typically done by midwife (mak bidan). It is either a prick (Type IV) or cutting off a small piece of the highest part of clitoral hood and foreskin (Type I).[141] FGM Prevalence rates have been estimated between 62% to 90% in Muslim Malay communities.[138] Malaysian women claim religious obligation (82%) as the primary reason for female circumcision, with hygiene (41%) and cultural practice (32%) as other major motivators for FGM prevalence.[138][141] Malaysia is a multicultural society, FGM is prevalent in Muslim community, and not observed in its minority Buddhist and Hindu communities.[141][142] Malaysia has no laws in reference to FGM.[143] The Malaysian government sponsored 86th conference of Malaysia’s Fatwa Committee National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs held in April 2009 decided that female circumcision is part of Islamic teachings and it should be observed by Muslims, with the majority of the jurists in the Committee concluding that female circumcision is obligatory (wajib). However, the fatwa noted harmful circumcision methods are to be avoided.[144] In 2012, Malaysian government health ministry proposed guidelines to reclassify and allow female circumcision as a medical practice.[145]
Indonesia (Type I and IV)
FGM is prevalent in Indonesia.[146][147][148] In certain communities of Indonesia, mass female circumcision (khitanan massal) ceremony are organized by local Islamic foundations around Prophet Muhammad’s birthday. Some FGM are Type IV done with a pen knife, others are Type I done with scissors. Two Indonesian nationwide studies in 2003 and 2010 found over 80% of Muslim girls are subjected to cutting, typically newborns through the age of 9. More than 90% of adults claimed they wanted the practice to continue.[147][149] Historical records suggest female circumcision in Indonesia started and became prevalent with the arrival of Islam in the 13th century as part of its drive to convert people to Islam. In islands of Indonesia, where partial populations converted to Islam in 17th century, FGM has been prevalent in Muslim females only.[150][151] In 2006, FGM was banned by the government; however, FGM/C remained commonplace for women in Indonesia – the world’s largest Muslim nation.[152] In 2010, the Indonesian Health Ministry issued a decree outlining the proper procedure for FGM, which activists claim contradicted the 2006 ruling prohibiting clinics from performing any FGM.[153] In 2013, the Indonesian Ulema Council ruled that it favors FGM, stating that although it is not mandatory, it is still “morally recommended”.[154] The Ulema has been pushing Indonesian government to circumcise girls, claiming it is part of Islamic teachings.[155] Some Indonesian officials, in March 2013, claimed cutting and pricking type circumcision is not FGM.[156]
Philippines
FGM is prevalent in parts of Philippines.[157][158][159] The communities that practice FGM call it Pag-Sunnat, sometimes Pag-Islam, and include Tausugs of Mindanao, Yakan of Basilan and other Muslim communities of Philippines. FGM is typically performed to girls between few days old and age 8. Type IV FGM with complications have been reported.[157][160]
Tajikistan
Female genital mutilation is present in Tajikistan.[130]

Legal status in other regions 

Australia
In 1994 there were several anecdotal reports of FGM being practised amongst migrant communities in Australia.[161] By 1997, all Australian states and territories had made FGM a criminal offence. It is also a criminal offence to take, or propose to take, a child outside Australia to have a FGM procedure performed.[162] The incidence of FGM in Australia is unknown as it is unreported to authorities and is often only uncovered when women and girls are taken to hospital due to complications with the procedure.[163]
Canada
FGM is considered child assault and prohibited under sections 267 (assault causing bodily harm) or 268 (aggravated assault, including wounding, maiming, disfiguring) of the Criminal Code.[164]
France
FGM is a criminal offense punishable by up to 20 years in jail. The law requires anyone to report any case of mutilation or planned mutilation.
Italy
After a few cases of infibulation practiced by complaisant medical practitioners within the African immigrants community came to public knowledge through media coverage, the Law n°7/2006 was passed on 1/9/2006, becoming effective on 1/28/2006, concerning “Measures of prevention and prohibition of any female genital mutilation practice”; the Act is also known as the Legge Consolo (“Consolo Act”) named after its primary promoter, Senator Giuseppe Consolo. Article 6 of the law integrates the Italian Penal Code with Articles 583-Bis and 583-Ter, punishing any practice of female genital mutilation “not justifiable under therapeutical or medical needs” with imprisonment ranging from 4 to 12 years (3 to 7 years for any mutilation other than, or less severe than, clitoridectomy, excision or infibulation). Penalty can be reduced up to 23 if the harm caused is of modest entity (i.e. if partially or completely unsuccessful), but may also be elevated up to 13 if the victim is a minor or if the offense has been committed for profit. An Italian citizen or a foreign citizen legally resident in Italy can be punished under this law even if the offense is committed abroad; the law will as well afflict any individual of any citizenship in Italy, even illegally or provisionally. The law also mandates any medical practitioner found guilty under those provisions to have his/her medical license revoked for a minimum of six up to a maximum of ten years.[165]
Norway
FGM is punishable as a criminal offense under Norwegian law even if the offence is committed abroad.[166]
Netherlands
FGM is considered mutilation and is punishable as a criminal offense under Dutch law. There is no specific law against FGM: the act is subsumed under the general offense of inflicting harm (“mishandling”, art. 300–304 Dutch Criminal Code). The maximum penalty is a prison sentence of 12 years. However, the sentence can be higher if the offender is a family member of the victim. It is also illegal to assist or encourage another person to perform FGM. A Dutch citizen or a foreign citizen legally resident in the Netherlands can be punished even if the offense is committed abroad. Doctors have the obligation to report suspected cases of FGM and may break patient confidentiality rules if necessary.
New Zealand
Under a 1995 amendment to the Crimes Act, it is illegal to perform “any medical or surgical procedure or mutilation of the vagina or clitoris of any person” for reasons of “culture, religion, custom or practice”. It is also illegal to send or make any arrangement for a child to be sent out of New Zealand for FGM to be performed, assist or encourage any person in New Zealand to perform FGM on a New Zealand citizen or resident outside New Zealand convince or encourage any other New Zealand citizen or resident to go outside New Zealand to have FGM performed.[167]
Spain
The Criminal Code does state that sexual mutilation, such as FGM, is a criminal offense punishable by up to 12 years in jail.
Sweden
FGM is punishable according to Act (1982:316) Prohibiting Female Genital Mutilation. Sweden was the first Western country to prohibit FGM, legislation against ‘female circumcision’ passed in 1982. In 1998 the law was revised with a change in terminology and more severe penalties for breaking the law were imposed. The law was further reformulated in 1999, to allow for prosecution in a Swedish court of someone performing FGM even if the act has been performed in a country where it is not considered criminal (removal of the principle of double incrimination).[168]
United Kingdom
FGM was made a criminal offence by the Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985.[169] This was superseded by the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003, and (in Scotland) by the Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005. Taking a UK citizen or permanent resident abroad for the purpose of FGM is a criminal offence whether or not it is lawful in the country the girl is taken to.[170] Since April 2014, all NHS hospitals will be able to record if a patient has undergone FGM or if there is a family history of this, and by September 2014, all acute hospitals will have to report this data to the Department of Health, on a monthly basis. [171]
United States
The Centers for Disease Control estimated in 1997 that 168,000 girls living in the United States had undergone FGM or were at risk.[172] Fauziya Kasinga, a 19-year-old member of the Tchamba-Kunsuntu tribe of Togo, was granted asylum in 1996 after leaving an arranged marriage to escape FGM; this set a precedent in US immigration law because it was the first time FGM was accepted as a form of persecution.[173] Performing the procedure on anyone under the age of 18 became illegal in the U.S. the following year with the Federal Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act.[174] Seventeen states enacted similar laws between 1994 and 2006.[175] The Transport for Female Genital Mutilation Act was passed in January 2013 and prohibits knowingly transporting a girl out of the U.S. for the purpose of undergoing FGM.[176] Khalid Adem, who had moved from Ethiopia to Atlanta, Georgia, became the first person to be convicted in the US in an FGM case; he was sentenced to ten years in 2006 for having severed his two-year-old daughter’s clitoris with a pair of scissors.[177]

Europe[edit]

In recent years the increase in immigration for individuals from countries which practice FGM, has led to the introduction of FGM in European and North American societies. However, FGM prevalence rate has been difficult to quantify among immigrants to European countries.[178] A case study which investigated FGM in groups of migrant women from Northern Africa to European countries like Scandinavia, noted that a majority of these women had been circumcised before their migration to Europe.[179] It also has been established that African communities in European countries continue the practice of FGM on their daughters after migrating to Europe.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. Jump up^ “Prevalence of FGM/C”. Childinfo.org. Retrieved 27 July 2013. “Original source: NICEF global databases, 2012. Based on DHS, MICS and other national surveys, 1997-2011.”
  2. Jump up^ Rouzi, A. A. (2013). Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 18(1), 10-14
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting UNICEF, (July 2013)
  4. Jump up^ Socialstyrelsen (2002), Kvinnlig könsstympning, Sweden; ISBN 91-7201-719-8; page 8-9; In Swedish, use a translator
  5. Jump up to:a b c d Female Genital Mutilation: Studies on primary and repeat female genital cutting Vanja Berggren, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (2005); see page 2-4
  6. Jump up to:a b FGM – Where is it practiced? European Campaign on FGM & Amnesty International (2012)
  7. Jump up^ Tackling Female Genital Mutilation in the Kurdistan Region Sofia Barbarani, The Kurdistan Tribune (March 4, 2013)
  8. Jump up to:a b World Health Organization, Female genital mutilation: an overview. 1998, Geneva: World Health Organization
  9. Jump up to:a b William G. Clarence-Smith (2012) ‘Female Circumcision in Southeast Asia since the Coming of Islam’, in Chitra Raghavan and James P. Levine (eds.), Self-Determination and Women’s Rights in Muslim Societies, Brandeis University Press; ISBN 978-1611682809; see pages 124-146
  10. Jump up^ Care of women with female genital mutilation/ cutting – A Review Jasmine Abdulcadira, Christiane Margairazb, Michel Boulvaina, Olivier Irion; Swiss Medical Weekly (Geneva), 2011; 140:w13137; doi: 10.4414/smw.2011.13137
  11. Jump up^ “Female genital mutilation”, World Health Organization, February 2010.
  12. Jump up^ Momoh, Comfort (ed). “Female Genital Mutilation”, Radcliffe Publishing, 2005, pp. 6–7.
  13. Jump up to:a b Gibeau, A. M. (1998), Female genital mutilation: when a cultural practice generates clinical and ethical dilemmas, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 27(1), 85-91
  14. Jump up to:a b “Bohra women go online to fight circumcision trauma”Hindustan Times. December 9, 2011.
  15. Jump up to:a b Female circumcision fear as fundamentalists roll back women’s rights Ben Doherty, The Sydney Morning Herald (January 25, 2012)
  16. Jump up^ Razor’s Edge – The Controversy of Female Genital Mutilation
  17. Jump up^ UNICEF 2013, pp. 3–26. *For Iraqi Kurdistan, also see Yasin, Berivan A. et al.“Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city”BMC Public Health, 13, September 2013. *For more information on UNICEF’s data collection, see “Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS)”, UNICEF, 25 May 2012.
  18. Jump up^ UNICEF 2013, pp. 114, 22
  19. Jump up^ Female Circumcision World Health Organization, United Nations
  20. Jump up^ FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: STRATEGIES FOR ERADICATION Fran P. Hosken (1989), The First International Symposium on Circumcision, Anaheim, California
  21. Jump up to:a b http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0810/p06s01-woiq.html?s=t5
  22. Jump up^ Stop FGM in Kurdistan
  23. Jump up^ Strobel S, von der Osten-Sacken T (2006-03-27). “Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan. Presented at the 1ère Journée Humanitaire sur la Santé des Femmes dans le Monde, Paris, France”. Gynécologie sans Frontières.
  24. Jump up to:a b c d e f Birch, Nicholas. “Female circumcision surfaces in Iraq”Christian Science Monitor, 10 August 2005.
  25. Jump up to:a b c The issue of female genital mutilation in Oman Susan Mubarak, Muscat Daily (January 01, 2013)
  26. Jump up to:a b Fatal traditions: Female circumcision in the UAE Wafa Al Marzouqi (Jul 23, 2011), The National, United Arab Emirates
  27. Jump up to:a b c Female genital mutilation: a brutal violation of rights Asma Malik, Gulf News (June 15, 2012)
  28. Jump up^ “Bedouins shunning FGM/C – new research”, IRIN, March 4, 2009.
  29. Jump up^ “Georgia: Man Convicted in Daughter’s Mutilation”, Associated Press, 2 November 2010.
  30. Jump up to:a b c Bjälkander et al. (2013), Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions, Obstetrics and Gynecology International, Volume 2013, doi: 10.1155/2013/680926
  31. Jump up^ A. Rahman and N. Toubia, Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Worldwide Laws and Policies, Zed Press, London, UK, 2000
  32. Jump up^ B. Karmaker, N.-B. Kandala, D. Chung, and A. Clarke (2011), “Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications,” International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 10, article 20; doi:10.1186/1475-9276-10-20
  33. Jump up^ E. F. Jackson et al. (2003), “Inconsistent reporting of female genital cutting status in northern Ghana: explanatory factors and analytical consequences,” Studies in Family Planning, vol. 34, no. 3, pages 200–210
  34. Jump up^ CHANGING A HARMFUL SOCIAL CONVENTION: FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION/CUTTING; see page 3, column 1
  35. Jump up to:a b The Situation of Children and Women in Iraq; see 2nd last page
  36. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC): Individual Country Reports”, U.S. State Department, 1 June 2001.
  37. Jump up^ Female Genital Mutilation – Africa’s Curse On Women JENNIFER LAZUTA, AllAfrica, (1 AUGUST 2013)
  38. Jump up to:a b “The Federal Republic of Somalia – Provisional Constitution”. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  39. Jump up^ Raya, Patricia Diane. “Female Genital Mutilation and the Perpetuation of Multigenerational Trauma”, The Journal of Psychohistory, Spring 2010.
  40. Jump up^ http://www.smith.edu/health/bygirlsforgirls/2011/Research/DepikaSingha.html
  41. Jump up to:a b c d e http://www.fgmnetwork.org/intro/fgmintro.html
  42. Jump up to:a b c FGM Education and Networking Project, Fgmnetwork.org, accessed 5 February 2011.
  43. Jump up to:a b c Female Genital Mutilation in Burkina Faso Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  44. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION/CUTTING: A Statistical Exploration UNICEF (2010); see Table 1C, page 34
  45. Jump up^ Bue Karmaker et al. (2011), Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications, International Journal for Equity in Health; 10: 20
  46. Jump up^ Stolz, Joëllepr (September 1998). “Le Burkina Faso fait reculer l’excision”. Le Monde diplomatique (in French). p. 18.
  47. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m “FGC Prevalence Rates Diagram”, African Women’s Health Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, accessed 7 September 2011.
  48. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Cameroon Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  49. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i LEGISLATION TO ADDRESS THE ISSUE OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM) Berhane Ras-Work, United Nations (May 21, 2009)
  50. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Chad Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  51. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “Female Genital Mutilation”, UK Border Agency, 20 June 2008.
  52. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Côte d’Ivoire Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  53. Jump up to:a b Female genital mutilation in Djibouti Martinelli and Ollé-Goig, African Health Sciences, 2012 December; 12(4): 412–415
  54. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Data and Trends: UPDATE 2010UNICEF, Page 7
  55. Jump up^ The issue of reinfibulation Gamal I. Serour, International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, Volume 109, Issue 2, May 2010, Pages 93–96
  56. Jump up^ Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage Or Violation of Rights? Frances Althaus, International Family Planning Perspectives, Volume 23, Number 3, September 1997
  57. Jump up^ DJIBOUTI: FGM still a major challenge IRIN, UN news service (2004)
  58. Jump up^ Michael, Maggie. “Egypt Officials Ban Female Circumcision”, The Associated Press, 29 June 2007.
  59. Jump up^ “Egypt forbids female circumcision”, BBC News, 28 June 2007.
  60. Jump up^ “Egypt strengthens ban on female genital cutting”, Reuters, 28 June 2007.
  61. Jump up^ “Egypt death sparks debate on female circumcision”, Reuters, 20 June 2007.
  62. Jump up to:a b Diana Kuring(2008) Female Genital Mutilation in Eritrea: Regional Variations“ (Chapter 4, pp. 57 – 120) in: Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung in Eritrea. Regionale Er- klärungen, nationale Ansätze und internationale Standards, Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2008; see summary here: starting page 105
  63. Jump up^ Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting: Data and Trends: UPDATE 2010 UNICEF, Page 7
  64. Jump up^ “Eritrea bans female circumcision”, BBC News, 4 April 2007.
  65. Jump up^ Female Genital Mutilation and Legislation Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (January 2011)
  66. Jump up^ The Gambia MICS 2005-2006 Report UNICEF and Gambia Bureau of Statistics (2007)
  67. Jump up to:a b Kaplan et al., Knowledge, attitudes and practices of female genital mutilation/cutting among health care professionals in The Gambia: a multiethnic study, BMC Public Health 2013, 13:851
  68. Jump up^ Hernlund Y: Cutting without ritual and ritual without cutting: female circumcision and the Re-ritualization of initiation in The Gambia. In Female “circumcision” in Africa: culture, controversy and change. Edited by Shell-Duncan B, Hernlund Y. London: Rienner publishers; 2000
  69. Jump up^ Kaplan et al. (2011), Health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting in the Gambia, evidence into action Reproductive Health, 8:26
  70. Jump up^ More Kombo community leaders resolve FGM is harmful The Point, Gambia (July 12, 2013)
  71. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Guinea Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  72. Jump up^ http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/guineabissau_59787.html
  73. Jump up to:a b c Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  74. Jump up^ “FGM: Kenya acts against unkindest cut”, The Guardian, 8 September 2011.
  75. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Liberia Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  76. Jump up to:a b c Female Genital Mutilation in Mali Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (November 2007)
  77. Jump up to:a b c Female Genital Mutilation in Mauritania Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  78. Jump up^ FGM/C – 2005 Statistics UNICEF, see page 32
  79. Jump up^ Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples 2006RÉPUBLIQUE DU NIGER; page 281 (in French, use an internet translator if you are not fluent in French)
  80. Jump up^ Female Genital Mutilation: An overview WHO, Geneva
  81. Jump up^ Ten villages unite to say ‘no’ to female genital mutilation/cutting in NigerUNICEF (2009)
  82. Jump up^ NIGER Nathalie Maulet, UNFPA (2007)
  83. Jump up^ NIGER: Legal ban on female circumcision widely ignored IRIN, UN News Service (2004)
  84. Jump up^ PRIORITIES IN CHILD SURVIVAL, EDUCATION AND PROTECTION – NigerUNICEF (2007)
  85. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  86. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Senegal Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  87. Jump up^ “Senegal: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC)”, Released by the Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women’s Issues, US Department of State.
  88. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  89. Jump up^ “Prevalence of FGM”. Who.int. 2010-12-09. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  90. Jump up^ “Somalia: Female genital mutilation down”Associated Press via The Jakarta Post. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  91. Jump up to:a b Female Genital Mutilation in Tanzania Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  92. Jump up^ “Uganda Bans Female Genital Mutilation”, BBC News, |10 December 2009.
  93. Jump up^ Uganda Government News: Uganda asked to ratify Women’s rights protocol,UGPulse, November 27, 2008
  94. Jump up^ “Museveni condemns genital cutting”The New Vision, Kampala, 2 July 2007.
  95. Jump up^ McVeigh, Tracy and Sutton, Tara. “British girls undergo horror of genital mutilation despite tough laws”The Guardian, 25 July 2010.
  96. Jump up to:a b c YEMEN: Government body moves to stem female genital mutilation IRIN, A news service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2008)
  97. Jump up to:a b c d http://www.irinnews.org/InDepthMain.aspx?InDepthId=15&ReportId=62465
  98. Jump up^ Gilbert, D. (1993). For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation. Links (New York, NY), 9(5), 6
  99. Jump up^ Golnaz Esfandiari (2009-03-10). “Female Genital Mutilation Said To Be Widespread In Iraq’s, Iran’s Kurdistan”. Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty.
  100. Jump up^ Saleem, R. A., Othman, N., Fattah, F. H., Hazim, L., & Adnan, B. (2013). Female Genital Mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors. Women & health, 53(6), 537-551
  101. Jump up^ Pashaei et al. (2012), Related Factors of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Ravansar (Iran), Journal of Women’s Health Care, 1:108; doi:10.4172/2167-0420.1000108
  102. Jump up^ “Female Genital Mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan – A Study”, WADI, accessed 15 February 2010.
  103. Jump up^ Burki, T. (2010), Reports focus on female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan. The Lancet, 375(9717), 794
  104. Jump up^ “Draft for a Law Prohibiting Female Genital Mutilation is submitted to the Kurdish Regional Parliament”, Stop FGM in Kurdistan, accessed 21 November 2010.
  105. Jump up^ Iraqi Kurdistan: Law Banning FGM Not Being Enforced Human Rights Watch, August 29, 2012
  106. Jump up^ Memorandum to prevent female genital mutilation in Iraq PUK, Kurdistan (May 2, 2013)
  107. Jump up^ Yasin et al. (September 2013) Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city, BMC Public Health, 13:809, doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-809
  108. Jump up^ The Jordanian town that still circumcises women Rana Sabbagh-Gargour, The Star (Lebanon)
  109. Jump up^ Female circumcision/genital cutting BBC Guide, United Kingdom (2008)
  110. Jump up^ Chibber, R., El-Saleh, E., & El Harmi, J. (2011), Female circumcision: obstetrical and psychological sequelae continues unabated in the 21st century, Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 24(6), pages 833-836
  111. Jump up^ “Is Female Genital Mutilation an Islamic Problem?”Middle East Quarterly, accessed 5 February 2011.
  112. Jump up^ FOCUS ON FGM Victoria Cuthbert, The Week (Oman), (April 25, 2012)
  113. Jump up to:a b Mutilation/Cutting: Promoting Gender Equality, UNFPA, accessed 5 February 2011.
  114. Jump up^ Gender Equality in West Bank and Gaza|Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI), Genderindex.org, 16 February 2007.
  115. Jump up^ Berg, R. C., Denison, E., & Fretheim, A. (2010). Psychological, social and sexual consequences of female genital. Report from Kunnskapssenteret, (13), Norway
  116. Jump up^ FGM Prevalence US Department of State (2001)
  117. Jump up^ Al-Sharabasi, Ahmad (1980), Yas’alunak fi al-din wal-hayat, 4th Edition, II, pp 31; also see I:253-255
  118. Jump up^ Alsibiani, S. A., & Rouzi, A. A. (2010). Sexual function in women with female genital mutilation. Fertility and sterility, 93(3), 722-724
  119. Jump up^ Rouzi, A. A. (2010). Epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts: not a rare complication of female genital mutilation. Human reproduction, 25(7), 1672-1674
  120. Jump up^ Berg, R. C., & Denison, E. (2012). Does female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) affect women’s sexual functioning? A systematic review of the sexual consequences of FGM/C. Sexuality research and social policy, 9(1), 41-56
  121. Jump up^ FEATURE-Fighting female genital mutilation, one Kurdish village at a timePatrick Markey, Reuters (October 17, 2012)
  122. Jump up^ The Practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in the Kurdish RegionsAcharya (2009), Kurdish Human Rights Project
  123. Jump up^ “Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: An interagency statement”, World Health Organization, 2008, p. 30.
  124. Jump up^ Kvello, Ane; Sayed L, Sundby J (2003-09-06). “Concerning female circumcision in the United Arab Emirates: Is clitoridectomy in a traditional context an assault against women?”FOKO 2003 – ABSTRACTS. University of Oslo.
  125. Jump up^ UAE Women Index Report 2012 Shamsa Saleh, UAE (2012)
  126. Jump up^ At a glance: Yemen – Statistics, UNICEF, accessed 5 February 2011.
  127. Jump up^ Female Genital Mutilation in Yemen Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (September 2011)
  128. Jump up^ YEMEN: New FGM/C law possible “within four years” – minister IRIN, A news service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2010)
  129. Jump up^ Overwhelming opposition to female genital mutilation/cutting, yet millions of girls still at risk UNICEF (July 2013)
  130. Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures: Family, Body, Sexuality and Health , Volume 3 (Encyclopaedia of Women and Islamic Cultures). Brill Academic Publishers. 2005. p. 588.
  131. Jump up^ “Female circumcision is cultural practice”, The Brunei Times, 16 June 2012.
  132. Jump up^ Islamism and radicalism in the Maldives Hasan Amir, Calhoun (CA, United States); see page 59-62
  133. Jump up^ Attorney General: Practice of female circumcision gaining momentum in AdduHaveeru, Maldives (December 12, 2009)
  134. Jump up^ Magoha & Magoha (2000), Current global status of female genital mutilation: a review. East African medical journal, 77(5)
  135. Jump up^ Practice Of Female Circumcision Among Bohra Muslims
  136. Jump up^ Female Genital Mutilation: Many Pakistani women’s painful secret Farahnaz Zahidi, February 6, 2013
  137. Jump up^ The Yin, Wounded – A primitive rite for Bohra women sees its first murmurs of protest DEBARSHI DASGUPTA, Outlook India (December 2011)
  138. Jump up to:a b c The Practice of Female Circumcision in Malaysia Maznah Dahlui, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia (May 10, 2012)
  139. Jump up^ Knowledge and acceptance of Female Circumcision Khalid et al., Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (2013)
  140. Jump up^ Rahman Isa A, Shuib R, Shukri Othman M (May 1999). “The practice of female circumcision among Muslims in Kelantan, Malaysia”. Reproductive Health Matters 7(13): 137–144. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(99)90125-8.
  141. Jump up to:a b c “A Tiny Cut”: Female Circumcision in South East Asia The Islamic Monthly (March 12 20313)
  142. Jump up^ Dahlui, Wong and Choo (2012), Female circumcision (FC) in Malaysia: Medicalization of a religious practice. Int. J. Behav. Med., 19 (Suppl 1):S7
  143. Jump up^ “Legislation and other national provisions”, Inter-Parliamentary Union, accessed 21 November 2010.
  144. Jump up^ Hukum Pemotongan Genitalia Wanita (Female Genital Mutilation) Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, Rasmi Fatwa, Government of Malaysia (2009)
  145. Jump up^ Malaysia storm over female circumcision ABC News Australia (December 7, 2012)
  146. Jump up^ A Cutting Tradition Sara Corbett, New York Times (January 20, 2008)
  147. Jump up to:a b The day I saw 248 girls suffering genital mutilation Abigail Haworth, The Guardian United Kingdom, (November 17, 2012)
  148. Jump up^ Male and Female Genital Cutting among Yagyakartans and MaduransMuhadjir Darwin et al. (2004), Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
  149. Jump up^ Female Circumcision in Indonesia Population Council and USAID, September 2003; see pages 24-27 and full report
  150. Jump up^ William Clarence-Smith, Self-determination and Women’s Rights in Muslim Societies (edited by Raghavan and Levine); pp 127-134, Brandeis University Press (2012), ISBN 978-1-61168-280-9.
  151. Jump up^ A. Feillard and L. Morcoes (1998), Female Circumcision in Indonesia: To Islamize in Ceremony or Secrecy Persee, Vol. 56, Issue 56, pages 337-367
  152. Jump up^ “INDONESIA: Female genital mutilation persists despite ban”, IRIN Global, 2 September 2010.
  153. Jump up^ [ Female circumcision decree must be revoked: NGOs] Dessy Sagita, The Jakarta Globe (June 23, 2011)
  154. Jump up^ [Mathias Hariyadi, [http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Indonesian-Ulema-in-favour-of-female-circumcision:-a-human-right-26948.html Indonesian Ulema in favour of female circumcision: a “human right”’, Asia News, Jakarta (24 Jan 2013)
  155. Jump up^ MUI pushes government to circumcise girls The Jakarta Post, Indonesia (January 22, 2013)
  156. Jump up^ Female circumcision not mutilation: Jakarta Agence France Presse, The Japan Times (March 25, 2013)
  157. Jump up to:a b FEMALE CIRCUMCISION AMONG YAKAN IN BASILAN, PHILIPPINESSittinurussamsi A. Calsalin, ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY (APRIL 2008)
  158. Jump up^ Gilbert, D. (1993). “For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation”.Links 9 (5): 6–8, 30. PMID 12159278edit
  159. Jump up^ Maria Kontoyannis and Christos Katsetos, Female genital mutilation, Health Sciences Journal, Vol 4, Issue 1 (2010)
  160. Jump up^ Muslim Women and Circumcision: “A Study of Intergenerational Practice and Its Continuity In Southern Philippines” Olga Czarina Velayo Belisario, WMSU Research Journal, Vol 28, No 1 (2009)
  161. Jump up^ “The Criminalisation Of Female Genital Mutilation In Queensland”. Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law. September 2002.
  162. Jump up^ Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (1997), Female Genital Mutilation: Information for Australian Health Professionals, Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
  163. Jump up^ “Girls mutilated for ‘tradition'”The Sunday Telegraph, 5 November 2006.
  164. Jump up^ Federal Interdepartmental Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation (1999),Female genital mutilation and health care – an exploration of the needs and roles of affected communities and health care providers in Canada, Health Canada
  165. Jump up^ Italian Law n°7 1/9/2006, Disposizioni concernenti la prevenzione e il divieto delle pratiche di mutilazione genitale femminile, accessed 23 March 2009.
  166. Jump up^ LAWS OF THE WORLD ON FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION Harvard University (February 2010)
  167. Jump up^ “Female Genital Mutilation: Information for health and child protection professionals, New Zealand Ministry of Health, accessed 7 September 2011.
  168. Jump up^ Johnsdotter, Sara (2004). FGM in Sweden: Swedish Legislation Regarding ‘Female Genital Mutilation’ and Implementation of the Law. Research Report in Sociology 2004:1. Lund University.
  169. Jump up^ Kerbaj, Richard. “Thousands of girls mutilated in Britain”The Times, 16 March 2009.
  170. Jump up^ Notes on some overseas countries’ laws, The FGM Education and Networking Project
  171. Jump up^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-26049733
  172. Jump up^ Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. “Female genital mutilation,”Encyclopedia of Women’s History in America. Da Capo Press, 1998, p. 85.
  173. Jump up^ Dugger, Celia W. “June 9-15; Asylum From Mutilation”,The New York Times, 16 June 1996.
  174. Jump up^ Zabus 2004, p. 110.
  175. Jump up^ Susan Deller Ross (2008). Women’s Human Rights: The International and Comparative Law Casebook. Vantage Press, Inc. p. 509.
  176. Jump up^ Hassan, Yasmeen. “As Global Consensus Accelerates, Obama Strengthens Federal Law Protecting Girls in the Fight Against Female Genital Mutilation”,The Huffington Post, 3 January 2013.
    • For the legal situation in the US as of 2008, see Ross, Susan Deller (ed.).Women’s Human Rights: The international and Comparative Law Casebook. Vantage Press, 2008, p. 509ff.
  177. Jump up^ “Man gets 10-year sentence for circumcision of 2-year-old daughter”, Associated Press, 1 November 2006.
  178. Jump up^ Leye, Els; Richard Powell, Gerda Nienhuis, Patricia Claeys, and Marleen Temmerman (2006). “Health Care in Europe for Women with Genital Mutilation.”.Health Care for Women International (27.4): 362–378.
  179. Jump up^ Elgaali, Mahoud; Helena Strevens, and Per-Anders Mårdh (2005). “Female Genital Mutilation – an Exported Medical Hazard”. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 10.2: 93–97.
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5 thoughts on “FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) by country

  1. BUTCHERS OF WOMANHOOD -FGM PROSTITUTION ON WOMANHOOD BY PARENTS (COVENANT OF THE FLESH).
    When God told Abraham to sign the covenant of the flesh, he circumcised all the male children and he was
    circumcised. The message was direct and in plain language. GENESIS 17: 1-27. The
    agreement was strategically initiated and the male child grew beholding
    daily his agreement with God at every call of nature throughout his married life.. The covenant of the flesh for a man is with ease to behold with no ill feelings or regrets without medication required afterwards in life.
    When God told Moses that the Children of Israel shall not circumcise their girls, the message was given in a spiritual language and bore two warnings. The Israelis parents shall not sexually mutilate their daughters and fathers were
    commanded not have carnal knowledge (incest) of their daughters making them
    prostitutes. Fgm is a satanic sacrifice for a woman, of secrecy with miseries and constrains of disgrace to behold accompanied by many cases of traumatic child delivery requiring medication. There is no fold of a fore skin in sexual organ of a woman to cut round that hides dirty stuffs that stinks. There is no part of her sexual organ that rots as she grows old from childhood. There are blunt lies of those women anointed by satan to propagate fgm when they claim women that are not cut stinks. Homes ,cities and countries where fgm is not practiced would have been stinking hell if their claim is true which would have been un open truth known by all. The devil is the father of lies and his accomplished the same. They have given fgm a satanic religious face value with wholesome none existent cleanses which is mockery to wisdom and Word of truth. Today fgm advocates feel their marriages are under attack and endangered with the unfolding truth on falsified physical and spiritual beneficial issues acclaimed in fgm. All they have is to tell epic of lies to keep their husbands mentally caged and remain relevant to their husbands. The devil has his own even among the smart elites in every society that will justify evils under all costs. Fgm is a demonic act associated with existent of parenthood and the devil who has given it a religious backing as a cover up of deception. There are women who have undergone fgm and they hold and tell the bear truth on issues based on fgm. May God Almighty shower them with blessings of fortitude of grace to forbear the deprivations done in fgm.
    Girls who face the evil cut become prostitutes on alter of satan sadly without their consent
    which pollutes the land. The evil cutting is done in honor of the dead.
    Leviticus 19:28-29. This type of prostitution cannot be cleansed by
    marriage. She bought her prostitution with her flesh, bone and blood on alter of
    Satan while still In her flower age when facing all forces of evils under her parental care. Unless she gets
    saved (call upon the blood of CHRIST to cleanse her.John3:16-18, Isaiah1:18)
    she shall go to her grave a prostitute. Thus there were no sexual mutilations
    among the Israelis women. The Girl child was bought up in divine order leaving
    the petals and stay of love intact for a beloved wise husband core co-benefits.
    She remained a spring shut up and a blessed fountain sealed in divine state.
    Song of Solomon 4:12, Proverbs 5:18-19.
    By instinct man lands at the garden
    of love and joy to prop it up at Divine state. The Israelis brethren
    never married from alters of Satan. Israelis women remained lively and
    delivered goodly children easily a state known to Pharaoh. Exodus 1:1 5-22.
    That knowledge on the difference between a circumcised woman and a woman who
    had not faced the evil cut was exploited by the Hebrew Midwives, Shiphrah and
    Puah as their reason for saving the men children alive contrary to the King of
    Egypt instructions for their ultimate death at birth for they were easily delivered for the Israeli women were lively. Pharaoh was aware
    that the Egyptians women went through Pharaonic circumcision or infibulations
    and the difficulties they faced in delivering children were known to him thus
    he agreed with the midwives’ answer. God has promised our beloved sisters save
    child delivery in their divine active lively state.. 1Timothy 2: 15 .Girls who have the evil cut cannot pass the
    threshold of Divine virginity since they sacrificed their fresh, soft bones and to demonic
    world. Their virginity in marriage is according to satanic standards since they
    have been defiled with humanity demonic practices. God has never described virginity for a girl child under the knife. All traditional women
    mutilator die poor since Satan keep them poor to their trade. They are devils’ priests who have hoodwink parent in Church of Christ that they help them in holiness in fgm .The girl child
    holds no battle field of faith in her defiled crippled sexual state. She is
    sexually excavated, sexually muted and sexually crippled. Girls who face
    the evil cut are leftovers from the alter of Satan and for a man marrying her
    is equal to sharing a wife with Satan unless she get saved. Man takes the marriage supper the left
    over from the alter of Satan us the dictate of demonic cultures. FGM is a
    form of partial castration for a womanhood. Man is put in higher marital responsibility which demand from him more attention ,facilitation and chain of deliveries from him. He cannot deliver marital joy to his wife if he remains in his selfish state that demand girls to be sexually crippled. How can a man deliver conjugal satisfaction in Divine state wherein the owner rights for marital joy were denied in fgm through the knife which he cannot reverse. Man is commanded by GOD to give his
    wife her conjugal rights and benefits also the woman to the same for its a shared
    joy. 1Corithians 1:1-4. FGM is the undeserved and the unnecessary worst evil committed on a girl child by her own parents when her fleshy coals are sacrificed to Satan .How can a sexually mutilated woman deliver joy in Divine state to her husband while sexual joy was denied and removed from her
    in FGM.
    Circumcision in man does not destroy his body integrity and his sexual ability remains unaltered.
    In Church of Christ, ever where parents force their daughters to face the
    evil cut, the parents having given the devil the first sacrifice should not be
    ashamed to remove the blanket of etiquette and prepare their daughters to play
    wives (incest) to their husbands to give the devil a complete sacrifice.
    It is not a greater evil than the first sacrifice. FGM is an insult and assault to womanhood. Let them pride
    themselves in complete evil. The petals and stay of love are left strewn at
    alters of Satan. The sparkles of love cannot be rekindles. In natural world a door is provided for knocking before entering and an aerial is provided for effective communication so is the same for a girl child by nature. FGM is not done for love of the girl child .This is misconception of love. There is no barbaric action done in love. Fgm is done when the sex organ of a girl child is viewed as a source of all immoralities and a center of all evils that engulf a community. It is done as a sacrificial proactive cleansing of a society from immoralities. They view mutilated sex organ of a girl child as clean and holy thus up rifting it to status of satanic reverence. Love does not seek its own benefits. Prostitutes made by parents in FGM are honored. Us no man can miss the mouth even when eating in total darkness, so shall man falter in search of the marital coals removed in sexual mutilation how foolish he is. FGM keeps man out natural way of life in marriage .Song of Solomon 2:6-7.
    Parents who perform FGM are sources of families instabilities and of great evils to the land. When their daughters face marital problems originating from the family parliament, they offer themselves for prayers with their daughters before God interceding for stability and peace for their homes. They don’t count themselves as the cause of the marital problems facing their daughters’ marriage life originating from the family parliament for breaking and dismantling the defense and the fences of the marriage court in fgm. The grandmother is in a more canning self defensive ,hypocritical and deceptive state buying time for daughter to bring up girls for her to storm unto them demanding sex mutilation in order for her to shower them with her blessings in her old. In such deceptive manner unfortunately the cycle of demonic fgm repeats itself again. Do they ever learn anything destructive in fgm or they are spiritually blind folded? When the wife at the family parliament lose esteemed value to her husband all that pertain to the family has no value to him and this is the widest gate for the man that leads to lack of burden of responsibility for the family that opens the highway of family destruction by the devil.
    FGM lay social foundations for unstable marital live. Parents are highly
    entrenched in prostitution with their girl child. When in demonic world parents say fgm makes a girl child clean but God says she defiled and made a prostitute. Ironically these parents are
    active in the Church who shoulder burdens for the church but with continuous
    unresolved marital problems a dilemma to the clergy. They are workers of
    Satan who have camouflaged as believers in the Church of Christ. How do they
    differ from magicians and witches? FGM is the parental satanic sexual sacrifice , assault, insult and abuse to a girl child sexual integrity. They pollute the land in prostitution and
    the land becomes full of all evils. How can a father be obsessed with the
    sexual organ of his daughter as a bearer of holiness in mutilated state? It
    is hypocritical for him to be in a place where GOD is worshiped. Why
    should parents be obsessed to place the family uprightness and the
    country holiness in the mutilated sex organ of their girl child? After FGM is done ,the girl child is highly esteemed and it is a demonic cover up of the plight of evils done.
    Can a girl child with stolen childhood and womanhood find love in her parents in subjecting her to unjust FGM?. It all boils down to social rottenness that require Divine spiritual intervention. Clergy ought teach and preach the truth and hold parents accountable to irresponsible injustice committed against their daughter in FGM. It is awkward that laws are enacted to
    stop parents from performing FGM. Men and women of upright minds come together to stop atrocities done to a
    girls child by her very own parents. Un issue parents would have abandoned on learning the suffering girls go through in fgm and after fgm. Instead of her finding parental love and care, she is ushered into brutality against her very womanhood. FGM has been used as an instrument of disciplined measure against women by sexually crippling them against perceived climes they have never committed. If FGM install holiness in women as paramount foundation for a holy life before
    marriage and in marriage, then there would never be any divorce in marriages where
    women have undergone FGM. This notion stipulate the mutilated sex organ of a
    woman as centre of holiness and un institution of worship since in it mutilated state chastity can be delivered. It would mean men loosing self holiness in
    God and having secondary holiness in God received from mutilated sex organ of a
    woman there by making the sex of a woman a centre of worship. This is demonic
    way of thinking and practice in life. FGM has zero benefit for a man and a woman. FGM suppresses the libido for which can never be regained in marriage .She is not adventurous in sexual relationship and the man takes the marriage supper under dark rules set to hind her shortcoming in dreaded love affairs. She cannot be Eve in garden of Eden for the man. The husband remain an instrument of torture in her married life. FGM increases incidences of cesarean and fistula complications at birth. Marital freedom is denied .It makes a woman a land without fence and a well without a cover. FGM opens without mercy hell on earth for a girl child which is a wakeup call for all brave and wise men to fight FGM.. FGM belittle wisdom. It is a barbaric culture imposed on womanhood by parents and the society at large .Song of Solomon 4:12
    It is evident FGM put God at faults for
    providing a girl child with an active sexual organ. They view the active sexual organ of
    a girl child in its Divine active state as evil and a source of immorality. Redemption and salvation for
    themselves is crafted by sexually crippling the girl child in FGM whereby they
    sacrifice the girl child sexual organ to Satan in the name of morality for God.
    Leviticus 19:28-29. By uplifting the sexual organ of a girl child as pillar of
    morality in defiled mutilated state shift the blame game to the sexual organ of
    a girl child as a source of immorality in a community hence all brutalities
    direct against the girl child in all forms of FGM. The blame game is directed
    against God for providing her with un active sexual organ thus they chop her sexual organ to their taste to make her a sexual mute. She live with stolen childhood and womanhood the lest of her lifetime.
    This defeat any sense of humanity in them. It is cruelty on a girl child at
    alter of family and community social holiness from demonic world.
    FGM was authored in Egypt by Pharaoh as Satanic sacrifice to increase pain and wailing in child birth as a Satanic
    sacrifice. The fleshy sexual coals are
    excavated leaving her frigid and rocky thus denying her for live time Divine
    marital gift which she requires in
    marriage for a lively marital relationship with her husband. How stupid a man
    may be, by instinct a man will falter in search of the fleshy coals
    removed in FMG thus leaving him at moral loose for unfulfilled marital
    achievement . The fleshy coals are provided for the benefit of their marriage life. 1Corithians7: 9. The
    fleshy coals helps a woman in marriage to lock in emotionally with her husband
    in a cordial marital relationship. Some parents send their daughters far away to close relatives for retrogressive FGM as a cover up without the girl child knowledge of the adverse side effects on her body and spirit. Today granddaughters are running away from grandparents and aunts since they hold the mutilating blades of tear and terror for their bodies and wise parents are shielding their daughters from them. This they call breakdown of extended families ties which brethren in Christ are ready to uphold for their faith in God and for the spiritual and physical dignity of their daughters. The shedding of the blood and flesh of their daughters in satanic sacrifice in fgm they cannot allow it us uniting force for the extended families unity. Their faith in Christ breaks the yoke of satan.
    It is quite evident parents are under cultural moral slavery siege and ready to sacrifice
    their daughters to FGM at demonic alter of cultures for community social
    acceptance but they are an eye sore before God for performing this type of prostitution . FGM is more of rottenness of mans’ morals as the head of the family. How would parents commit their daughters to FGM so us someone
    can have food for the mouth calling it their trade of life? How could someone
    say it was done in honor of religion where God is mentioned and the clergy
    exist? How will girls ever be compensated after the evil trade of forced FGM is abandoned while their mutilated sexes organs remain and the wounded soul and spirit cry to God Almighty. Many parents
    are still stuck in wilderness of demonic cultures though in institutions of
    Godly worship. Even from time of old women can perform all types of evils counting on their husbands’ support. Israelis women in the Bible told Jeremiah the Prophet that the sacrifices they offered to queen of heaven they did so with the support and knowledge of their husbands. Jeremiah 44:19 Even today women who force their daughters to undergo FGM count on their husbands full support. They confirm their husbands are part of Satanic sacrifice performed on their daughters in FGM when they disregard Godly advice and truth concerning fgm. It is the time parental love and care are nonexistent as the girl child is raised on alter of Satan for fgm for demonic morality chastity with full parental honor and the pleas by young girls for justice fall to deaf ears. The coveted cultural benefits and rights in FGM are left with the parents as the girl child is merchandized at the altar of Satan leaving her empty handed bearing all adverse severe effects and defects in her body and spirit for a life time. For how long will parents hold this form of prostitution dear to their bosom for earthly respect ,honor and social acceptance? Is it that before God our beloved parents are not aware they are in prostitution with their daughters in fgm or they are stiff necked? The earth is drenched in pollution with the innocent blood of young girls and the seed of terror of evils is planted and established. Who will pull out parents stuck in the wilderness of demonic cultures with love and care? FGM is in the bosoms of parents and the community at large. It all boils down to communities social rottenness. The battle
    fields of double faiths range in their hearts and they fail terribly to test of
    faith in God.
    GOD is not a respecter of persons and you cannot modify evils committed by parents to less evils to look upright. No form of FGM is acceptable . To think you can subject girls to less invasive form of FGM is
    spiritually not acceptable . Where Men
    circumcision involves removal of a fold of the fore skin, FGM involves massive dense muscles with high concentration
    of sensitive net work of nerves and soft which leaves a woman sexually crippled out phase with man.
    bone removal. Her bone is left in the air to dry like dead wood. This is not circumcision. It is Sexual excavation. Circumcision involves cutting round a fore skin in man. Which man would ever leave part of his bone cut to dry in the air like dead wood? After FGM there are no bows left for man to hold. Song of Solomon 7:8 .NO blood should be spilled in FGM. Leviticus 19:28-29. God purposed a woman to enjoy sex in marriage. No human being should play God to her life.
    Song of Solomon 2:2-5. Sexual joy is Divine given to her and parents have no rights in sexually crippling her in FGM. Do not give parents a soft landing ground in their evils adventures by making them acceptable social criminals. The youths of today face great moral social battle against FGM which is a must win goal since they are blessed and enlightened with abundant interactive active knowledge concerning ills of FGM. They must not allow themselves to be engulfed in a cocoon of suffering.
    FGM is a satanic faith moral issue hedged on cultural . It is the deadly beastly yoke of Satan on womanhood. Satan activities have camouflaged themselves as Godly believers among believers telling them they assist them in holiness in FGM. FGM is the annual mass sacrifice done by parents to Satan for his glorification. In demonic world they claim FGM make a girl child clean but God says she defiled and made a prostitute sadly without her consent. Can parents take heed to Godly advice and do away with generation to generation prostitution in fgm? If we have to stop FGM it cannot be based only on negative side effects inherited by FGM. Since it is a faith issue one can decide to live bearing all sufferings that come with FGM. It is known
    even clinically trained personnel perform FGM with full background firsthand knowledge of all
    sufferings and shortcoming associated with FGM. They are well paid by those who hunger and thirst to satisfy they cultural based faith attachment in FGM even contrary to moral standards of Godly believers. When FGM is involved, God is of secondary important to them. It is the time Satan is Supreme in their lives when all demonic forces raise against the girl child. The clergy have more work to do in preaching having to bring parents and young men on board to the full knowledge
    of the Word of God. Young men know God told Moses in Spiritual language that FGM is a Satanic sacrifice for non
    believers hidden and preserved in parenthood for acceptance. Leviticus 19:28-29. Young men if you are presented with a
    virgin sexually mutilated without the sparkle of love and a virgin who has her divine splendor of her sex
    organ intact, who would you choose a wife having stood the test of faith in
    Godly manner? The clergy cannot live as though no Satanic sacrifices are performed on the girl child in FGM. In FGM the marriage bed is defiled .Young men have full reality faith in Godly that you share a wife with Satan in FGM.
    You cannot serve God and demons together. The choose is in your heart. Choose
    wisely.
    In Church of Christ, let fathers not exercise the terror of silence which have allowed satan to raid and rain terror on young girls in fgm. Let fathers stand up for the divine rights of their daughters in marriage. Parents owe their sons in laws
    lifetime gratitude for agreeing to marry their daughters whom they sexually
    assaulted and sexually crippled. God has never asked parents to sexually
    cripple their daughters so as to remain virgins and holly. Is holiness attained
    by sexually crippling a girl child acceptable to God’s purposes for her live
    destiny entity? No. There is holiness that pertains to children of God. Fgm is direct assault and insult to her real womanhood.
    The sex organ of a girl child cannot be manipulated through sexual mutilations
    as a gate way for man to heaven. Parents owe their daughters a life time
    apology for their inhuman acts which robbed them their divine marital gifts.
    Parents who force their daughters to undergo FGM exercise the most Dignified
    Unreserved Beastly Cultural Atrocities on the girl
    child with man child at the receiving end as beneficially.FGM remain the most horrible evil coveted by some parents with full support of some grandparents and aunts. Proverbs14:1-2. A foolish woman destroys
    her own house with her own hands. Let parents face the truth and know they have evil thoughts against their girl child in FGM and they are terribly wrong .In the spirit world parents spy their daughters and are envious of their marital bed thus they raid the marriage court in fgm acts. They view their daughters us sexually wild and immoral children who have to be tamed to gain moral control over their bodies in fgm where God has never subjected mankind holiness under the Knife. But who is weak? Men or women. Is the immorality one sided based on women among themselves only? Is the girl child sexually immoral to herself? Who is fooling who? Is the sexual organ of a girls child the pillar of immorality and evils? FGM is the highest unjust sacrifice involving blood ,flesh and bone to Satan which tie parents more to demonic world. Can men cut their penis heads to equalize themselves with women who have lost their clitoris in fgm? In FGM, parents are a curse to a nation. In fgm parents craft and draw holiness for themselves and for the whole family together with the community from fgm thus they cleanse and protect themselves from immoralities in the blood of their daughters. The burden of family and the community holiness is pegged and delivered from the mutilated sex organ of a girl child. It is a demonic way of life. This pertain more to human sacrifice and worship to satan than many would like not to believe they are submerged in demonic practices.
    It is hypocritical and mockery for parents in Church of Christ to spend their early marriage life in double standards life to perpetuate FGM and live in their twilight years as devoted loving caring parents having soiled their hands with the blood of their daughters in a well intended time staged managed shedding of
    blood and flesh of their daughters in FGM in early marriage life as she wade through the jungle of life for demonic chastity sacrifice acceptance . Parents pride themselves in FGM for tearing down the defense and fences of the marriage court a sacrifice to Satan. They do not pride and delight themselves in God. But GOD can never be mocked. Some men force their daughters to undergo FGM under their mothers’ pressure forgetting there are no curses for those in Christ Jesus. Galatians3:10-14, Proverb26:1-2. It is quite evident parents are under cultural moral slavery siege
    and ready to sacrifice their daughters to FGM at alter of demonic
    cultures for community social acceptance.FGM is the historical prostitution and plunder of womanhood bound in cultural respect and honor. Evil committed by parents cannot be justified by existent of time done or by existent of once faith to do it.
    Can a man kneel before God and support FGM. It is awkward to hear men say what is good for a
    woman and not say what God say is good for a woman and him. It seems some
    men want to craft a way of life from the sex organ of women for themselves in name of purity for God. When God told
    Moses that the Israelis fathers shall not subject their daughters to FGM in
    honor of the dead or have sex with them, He did not leave any form of FGM
    for a girl child. To suggest there can be mild form of FGM is not acceptable
    before God. Leviticus 19:28-29. FGM is the annual mass satanic sacrifice done by parents. Once the blood of a girl child is shed in FGM the land is polluted and the country becomes full of all evils. If men have no respect for
    the complex delicate sex organ which is the sanctuary of marriage which their long for and deliver them to this world, how will they have mercy for one another even where they have common faith?
    When the earth is fully polluted in FGM, at a point in
    life ,men turn the country a slaughter house for one another and the
    communities at large. When the demonic world unleash calamities and atrocities on the community, images of suffering that draw waves of emotions and floods of tears are seen The seed of all evils is planted and watered by parents.FGM usher cerebration after the garden of love and joy defense and fences are scrapped out. Men can overturn the suffering girls go through in FGM over night when they are not habitually cheated on issues concerning FGM. They will take a firm stand knowing girls atrocities in FGM resulting in a flood gate of life of sufferings is not their joy and benefit by refusing sharing wives with Satan in FGM which rob her the coals of love. Men must understand and know that FGM is a respected high order of satanic prostitution done by parents with honor when coals of love are sacrificed to Satan. No trade can exist without customers. When men have true caring love and holy concern for our beloved sisters, Satanic parental generations prostitution sacrifices in FGM will be an issue in the forgotten past. Men ought to know and understand that in FGM the devil has invaded the sanctuary of marriage and defiled the fountain. Let your fountain be blessed, cushy and the King of marriage is fully anointed. Let not your fountain be a fountain of terror and horror. Youth should enter marriage with their full bodies integrity intact as virgins of the Lord,1 Corinthians7:36. Which man would not like to have a happy and glorious wife beside him bound together in perfect true love? That bundle cannot be separated. Provebrs5:18-19. Which wise man would prefer a bride prepared for him on hell on earth and sexually crippled in fgm wholly blended with religion by satan ? Men bear the automate change over. Amen. Girls are prepared for them in fgm for marriage .They are the deciding factor which can never be ignored with power to free our sisters from grip of satan in fgm. If men give our dear sisters the loving caring right hand of help in saying no to fgm and fathers lead in saying no to fgm without leaving mothers to have their ways like Eve in the garden of Aden then fgm is doomed forever.
    How would parents commit their daughters to FGM so us someone can have food for the mouth calling it
    their trade of life? How could someone say it was done in honor of religion
    where God is mentioned and the clergy exist? How will ever be girls
    compensated who are forced to FGM in their flower age after abandoning
    the evil trade? Parents and the clergy should know that the mutilated
    injured girls remain and the wounded souls and spirit cry to Almighty God. Many
    parents are still stuck in wilderness of demonic cultures though in
    institutions of Godly worship. Who will pull out parents stuck in the
    wilderness of demonic cultures with love and care? FGM is in the bosoms
    of parents and the community at large. It all boils down to communities social
    rottenness. The battle fields of double faiths range in their hearts and they
    fail terribly to test of faith in God. Can parents be so cruel and evil minded to perform FGM in name of morality in GOD? FGM is the past generations form of prostitution on womanhood with respect , honor and rewards. Let us have fathers who can stand for God with their families when the lest rebel against God. Joshua 24:14-15 .
    The greatest force behind FGM are fathers and young men. It is heart
    breaking to hear women say if it were not of demands by fathers and young
    men behind the sin they will not do it. In FGM parents break the spiritual and physical integrity well being of their daughters. It is all known some men dare not speak against FGM for it propel
    them to political powers. The parents and the whole families political votes are dear to
    them thus they center themselves us champion of FGM as a cultural heritage. Their political powers
    are fueled by blood and flesh of young girls thus weakening laws passed to ban
    FGM. The young girls fate hang out of balance since she cannot count on rescue
    even from her dear brothers. Her fate is sealed in dying hope by those who thirst and hunger for her
    flesh and blood for the injustice of the beloved parents is awful cruel. It is in the hour of need a father turns a cold shoulder to his girl child and commit her to Satan in fgm. The girl child lives with unresolved burning self reserved resentments against her parents but all they see is well to their eyes. The dark embarrassing day of losing her womanhood in FGM remains vivid to her mind. Parents will have their daughters physically but emotionally detached from them in their old age a dilemma and a surprise to them. Their silent heart acre of lack of mutual trust between their daughters will go down to their old age. A great social rift is emerging among the youth and old generation based on increased abundant interactive active knowledge on whole issues based on FGM with youth calling for social justice. Youths are on a race against time whether to subject their marriages to generations prostitution in FGM. Parents can socially lose their children in their old age with phenomenal of being neglected by their children becoming more apparent. FGM condemns a girl child to a life time of sexual slavery. This is the misery bestowed upon her by her parents in honor of the dead which they hold dear to their hearts.
    Parents pride themselves in FGM since they receive their communities social
    recognitions and acceptance at a price of permanently sexually deforming
    their girls in FGM which they can view in a mirror. Parents are in Sodom of their own even in places of
    worship.
    Laws to ban FGM may not eliminate FGM since it can be done clinically
    at home. Parents require deliverance of their souls and spirit to God.
    In their liberated hearts they will not suffer any loose for abandoning FGM
    for their trust in God is paramount. God Himself told Moses that the Israelis
    fathers shall not subject their daughters to FGM in honor of the dead or
    have sex with them making them prostitutes. Leviticus 19:28-29. FGM is a
    Satanic sacrifice involving blood, soft bone and flesh and parents are more bonded to
    demonic world by sacrificing their girl child in FGM . The seed of evils is planted, watered and guarded by parents in joy. Let all Children of Abraham by faith face the full reality of the demands in their faith in God.
    God bless you all united against this demonic cultural practice called FGM, a hard nut to crack preserved and hidden in parenthood for acceptance. It is the time the promises in fgm die out and the demonic world open its’ gates wide for the girl child and closes its’ gates behind her back as she leaves the alter of Satan empty handed for the rest of her life time. Can the young men and girls muscle enough will power and do away with FGM forced down their lives by the old generation? Yes, they can since they are strong with an open mind. They have the divine provision of a happy marriage within their reach. Their marriage belong to them and not to their parents. Your obedience stays within the practices of Godly confined boundaries. God says you are strong and you can overcome the wicked one. 1 john2:14. We must hold the Word of God within its content and contest lest or we be found to have contempt for the Word of God.
    In Church of Christ, men should stop counting their up hold to
    spiritual holiness in reverence to a defiled sexually mutilated sex organ of a
    woman. Some men say when women are sexually crippled, men and women remain
    faithful but to who? Which men are sexually crippled for women to remain holy?
    Is the sexual organ of a woman an institution of worship for men? GOD IS HOLLY.
    Men shouldn’t have defiled faith in God based on crippled sexual organ of a
    woman. Men should love God with a pure heart. The sexual organ of a woman is
    not a stay to his faith in his God. Should a man share a wife with the
    devil? FGM is ill tagged as a benefit to a man child by those who
    perpetuate this demonic sacrifice. Men who view their holiness in God through the mutilated sexual organ of a woman put their faith in God to demonic practices. FGM is a Satanic sacrifice imposed on womanhood by men behind the sin for selfish eroded gratification. Culturally women who had gone FGM as they
    passed child bearing age and hung up the ploughs, the old man would marry
    another young woman who had gone FGM referred to us the wife of his old age
    with desires to have children. No eyes blow were raised against her by the
    other wives since they understood their frigid sexual rocky morbid state. They were not a joy to have as wives in their old age . Love to hem was like surgery awake and they acknowledged the sexually active state of their husband. It was a time their husband was like a sexual beast to them. They sexually off loaded themselves through the young wife of his old aged thus shifting the burden of the curse to the young woman. Parents who perform FGM are a curse to their children and the country not because they have pronounce a curse upon them but they are curse before God to their children and the country for the demonic act in fgm. Where uncircumcised woman is married to a polygamous marriage of circumcised women, they vehemently call for her circumcision since she is like a magnet to their husband. They need him less of her.
    If a man has to be circumcised in the Church of Christ, he should join our sisters in spiritual circumcision for all that is salvation. Colossians 2: 8-12. Roman2:28-29. Can a wise man pride himself before God
    counting the benefits of marrying a prostitute? In Church of Christ, only
    uncultured men in Godly practices, uncouth, no witty and demonic sadist will
    applaud sexual mutilation of young girls.
    Leviticus 19:28-29. FGM is the perennial curse for the girl child and the
    land. The land is polluted and all evils come to the nation.FGM defeat any
    Godly purpose for it . Can any clergy support FGM? Only
    those taught by apostles and ministers of Satan can support FGM. FGM exercise the most Dignified Unreserved Beastly Cultural Atrocities on womanhood which is the deadly yoke of Satan hidden in parenthood for demonic chastity acceptance.
    Corinthians11:13-15. NO FGM WITH GOD .When faithful Abraham the father of faith was commanded by God to be
    circumcised at 99 years old with his son Ishmael at thirteen years old, he obeyed
    God. Sarah and Hagar were not circumcised or any girl child since there is no women circumcision with God. It was a clear
    instruction and Abraham obeyed Jehovah God instructions to the letter. GENESIS
    17: 1-27. Parents only way out of this
    demonic trap is to reconcile back to God together with their daughters by
    asking for unreserved forgiveness and get saved. Since in fgm the girl child is sacrificed in historical generation to generation prostitution and plunder on womanhood bound in cultural respect and honor for the man child evil conceived none existent concealed benefits ,the man child ought to be brought in the front line to fights fgm empowered with full knowledge of all ills involved in fgm. The life time miseries the girl child goes through in fgm is not a gift to a man child. Fgm blends sorrow and suffering for a woman. When the mind of the man child is redeemed from fgm and fathers make a stand against the inherent morally disgusting and offensive satanic fgm, it will be the natural death of fgm . Men have subjected women to their brutal evil discovery of cultural slavery and sexual deprivation of marital joy in fgm as a precondition for love and marriage which they have agreed to, since they feel desperate and defenselessly cornered. Men should not enter into marriage in seeking vain glory of sexual competition with women which raise fgm to make them sexual cripples for men to remain on top since it is a Divine given shared joy. Men should not take pleasure in sexually humiliating and hurting women in fgm. This is a demonic and the most hypocritical selfish life style for a man on earth. Men should enter into marriage within Divine approved order without selfish cultural sexual inclinations . FGM is a satanic sacrifice more tied to man as the enforcer but he does not bear the scaring sufferings women go through silently with scars and no Christian should apply it in life. Christian should eliminate FGM with ability given to us by our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Come and be renewed at the throne of grace for Christ is full of love and mercy for your sanctification and redemption. The cradle of hope in Christ radiates the inner person who forgives in perfect love and cannot be deformed. Let the abundant love of Christ prevail in your yielding life of righteousness. His unfailing love full of grace is sufficient for your triumph future without compromise. The Church is cleansed and restored for His own glory.
    Love covers multitudes of sins and weakness . Jehovah God break the yoke of Satan in FGM at family pillars.
    GOD OUTLAWED FGM WHICH
    WAS FORBIDDEN AND WRITTEN IN SPIRITUAL LANGUAGE. Leviticus 19:28-29. The message is freely given
    purely to the body of JESUS CHRIST worldwide.

    By Br. Robert Munyui Kamunyu.

  2. BUTCHERS OF WOMANHOOD -FGM PROSTITUTION ON WOMANHOOD BY PARENTS (COVENANT OF THE FLESH).
    When God told Abraham to sign the covenant of the flesh, he circumcised all the male children and he was
    circumcised. The message was direct and in plain language. GENESIS 17: 1-27. The
    agreement was strategically initiated and the male child grew beholding
    daily his agreement with God at every call of nature throughout his married life.. The covenant of the flesh for a man is with ease to behold with no ill feelings or regrets without medication required afterwards in life.
    When God told Moses that the Children of Israel shall not circumcise their girls, the message was given in a spiritual language and bore two warnings. The Israelis parents shall not sexually mutilate their daughters and fathers were
    commanded not have carnal knowledge (incest) of their daughters making them
    prostitutes. Fgm is a satanic sacrifice for a woman, of secrecy with miseries and constrains of disgrace to behold accompanied by many cases of traumatic child delivery requiring medication. There is no fold of a fore skin in sexual organ of a woman to cut round that hides dirty stuffs that stinks. There is no part of her sexual organ that rots as she grows old from childhood. There are blunt lies of those women anointed by satan to propagate fgm when they claim women that are not cut stinks. Homes ,cities and countries where fgm is not practiced would have been stinking hell if their claim is true which would have been un open truth known by all. The devil is the father of lies and his accomplished the same. They have given fgm a satanic religious face value with wholesome none existent cleanses which is mockery to wisdom and Word of truth. Today fgm advocates feel their marriages are under attack and endangered with the unfolding truth on falsified physical and spiritual beneficial issues acclaimed in fgm. All they have is to tell epic of lies to keep their husbands mentally caged and remain relevant to their husbands. You cannot teach men enough on issues involving sex and the future for men is settling to free themselves from inhuman inhibited sexual slavery in fgm. The devil has his own even among the smart elites in every society that will justify evils under all costs. Fgm is a demonic act associated with existent of parenthood and the devil who has given it a religious backing as a cover up of deception. There are women who have undergone fgm and they hold and tell the bear truth on issues based on fgm. May God Almighty shower them with blessings of fortitude of grace to forbear the deprivations done in fgm.
    Girls who face the evil cut become prostitutes on alter of satan sadly without their consent
    which pollutes the land. The evil cutting is done in honor of the dead.
    Leviticus 19:28-29. This type of prostitution cannot be cleansed by
    marriage. She bought her prostitution with her flesh, bone and blood on alter of
    Satan while still In her flower age when facing all forces of evils under her parental care. Unless she gets
    saved (call upon the blood of CHRIST to cleanse her.John3:16-18, Isaiah1:18)
    she shall go to her grave a prostitute. Thus there were no sexual mutilations
    among the Israelis women. The Girl child was bought up in divine order leaving
    the petals and stay of love intact for a beloved wise husband core co-benefits.
    She remained a spring shut up and a blessed fountain sealed in divine state.
    Song of Solomon 4:12, Proverbs 5:18-19.
    By instinct man lands at the garden
    of love and joy to prop it up at Divine state. The Israelis brethren
    never married from alters of Satan. Israelis women remained lively and
    delivered goodly children easily a state known to Pharaoh. Exodus 1:1 5-22.
    That knowledge on the difference between a circumcised woman and a woman who
    had not faced the evil cut was exploited by the Hebrew Midwives, Shiphrah and
    Puah as their reason for saving the men children alive contrary to the King of
    Egypt instructions for their ultimate death at birth for they were easily delivered for the Israeli women were lively. Pharaoh was aware
    that the Egyptians women went through Pharaonic circumcision or infibulations
    and the difficulties they faced in delivering children were known to him thus
    he agreed with the midwives’ answer. God has promised our beloved sisters save
    child delivery in their divine active lively state.. 1Timothy 2: 15 .Girls who have the evil cut cannot pass the
    threshold of Divine virginity since they sacrificed their fresh, soft bones and to demonic
    world. Their virginity in marriage is according to satanic standards since they
    have been defiled with humanity demonic practices. God has never described virginity for a girl child under the knife. All traditional women
    mutilator die poor since Satan keep them poor to their trade. They are devils’ priests who have hoodwink parent in Church of Christ that they help them in holiness in fgm .The girl child
    holds no battle field of faith in her defiled crippled sexual state. She is
    sexually excavated, sexually muted and sexually crippled. Girls who face
    the evil cut are leftovers from the alter of Satan and for a man marrying her
    is equal to sharing a wife with Satan unless she get saved. Man takes the marriage supper the left
    over from the alter of Satan us the dictate of demonic cultures. FGM is a
    form of partial castration for a womanhood. Man is put in higher marital responsibility which demand from him more attention ,facilitation and chain of deliveries from him. He cannot deliver marital joy to his wife if he remains in his selfish state that demand girls to be sexually crippled. How can a man deliver conjugal satisfaction in Divine state wherein the owner rights for marital joy were denied in fgm through the knife which he cannot reverse. Man is commanded by GOD to give his
    wife her conjugal rights and benefits also the woman to the same for its a shared
    joy. 1Corithians 1:1-4. FGM is the undeserved and the unnecessary worst evil committed on a girl child by her own parents when her fleshy coals are sacrificed to Satan .How can a sexually mutilated woman deliver joy in Divine state to her husband while sexual joy was denied and removed from her
    in FGM.
    Circumcision in man does not destroy his body integrity and his sexual ability remains unaltered.
    In Church of Christ, ever where parents force their daughters to face the
    evil cut, the parents having given the devil the first sacrifice should not be
    ashamed to remove the blanket of etiquette and prepare their daughters to play
    wives (incest) to their husbands to give the devil a complete sacrifice.
    It is not a greater evil than the first sacrifice. FGM is an insult and assault to womanhood. Let them pride
    themselves in complete evil. The petals and stay of love are left strewn at
    alters of Satan. The sparkles of love cannot be rekindles. In natural world a door is provided for knocking before entering and an aerial is provided for effective communication so is the same for a girl child by nature. FGM is not done for love of the girl child .This is misconception of love. There is no barbaric action done in love. Fgm is done when the sex organ of a girl child is viewed as a source of all immoralities and a center of all evils that engulf a community. It is done as a sacrificial proactive cleansing of a society from immoralities. They view mutilated sex organ of a girl child as clean and holy thus up rifting it to status of satanic reverence. Love does not seek its own benefits. Prostitutes made by parents in FGM are honored. Us no man can miss the mouth even when eating in total darkness, so shall man falter in search of the marital coals removed in sexual mutilation how foolish he is. FGM keeps man out natural way of life in marriage .Song of Solomon 2:6-7.
    Parents who perform FGM are sources of families instabilities and of great evils to the land. When their daughters face marital problems originating from the family parliament, they offer themselves for prayers with their daughters before God interceding for stability and peace for their homes. They don’t count themselves as the cause of the marital problems facing their daughters’ marriage life originating from the family parliament for breaking and dismantling the defense and the fences of the marriage court in fgm. The grandmother is in a more canning self defensive ,hypocritical and deceptive state buying time for daughter to bring up girls for her to storm unto them demanding sex mutilation in order for her to shower them with her blessings in her old. In such deceptive manner unfortunately the cycle of demonic fgm repeats itself again. Do they ever learn anything destructive in fgm or they are spiritually blind folded? When the wife at the family parliament lose esteemed value to her husband all that pertain to the family has no value to him and this is the widest gate for the man that leads to lack of burden of responsibility for the family that opens the highway of family destruction by the devil.
    FGM lay social foundations for unstable marital live. Parents are highly
    entrenched in prostitution with their girl child. When in demonic world parents say fgm makes a girl child clean but God says she defiled and made a prostitute. Ironically these parents are
    active in the Church who shoulder burdens for the church but with continuous
    unresolved marital problems a dilemma to the clergy. They are workers of
    Satan who have camouflaged as believers in the Church of Christ. How do they
    differ from magicians and witches? FGM is the parental satanic sexual sacrifice , assault, insult and abuse to a girl child sexual integrity. They pollute the land in prostitution and
    the land becomes full of all evils. How can a father be obsessed with the
    sexual organ of his daughter as a bearer of holiness in mutilated state? It
    is hypocritical for him to be in a place where GOD is worshiped. Why
    should parents be obsessed to place the family uprightness and the
    country holiness in the mutilated sex organ of their girl child? After FGM is done ,the girl child is highly esteemed and it is a demonic cover up of the plight of evils done.
    Can a girl child with stolen childhood and womanhood find love in her parents in subjecting her to unjust FGM?. It all boils down to social rottenness that require Divine spiritual intervention. Clergy ought teach and preach the truth and hold parents accountable to irresponsible injustice committed against their daughter in FGM. It is awkward that laws are enacted to
    stop parents from performing FGM. Men and women of upright minds come together to stop atrocities done to a
    girls child by her very own parents. Un issue parents would have abandoned on learning the suffering girls go through in fgm and after fgm. Instead of her finding parental love and care, she is ushered into brutality against her very womanhood. FGM has been used as an instrument of disciplined measure against women by sexually crippling them against perceived climes they have never committed. If FGM install holiness in women as paramount foundation for a holy life before
    marriage and in marriage, then there would never be any divorce in marriages where
    women have undergone FGM. This notion stipulate the mutilated sex organ of a
    woman as centre of holiness and un institution of worship since in it mutilated state chastity can be delivered. It would mean men loosing self holiness in
    God and having secondary holiness in God received from mutilated sex organ of a
    woman there by making the sex of a woman a centre of worship. This is demonic
    way of thinking and practice in life. FGM has zero benefit for a man and a woman. FGM suppresses the libido for which can never be regained in marriage .She is not adventurous in sexual relationship and the man takes the marriage supper under dark rules set to hind her shortcoming in dreaded love affairs. She cannot be Eve in garden of Eden for the man. The husband remain an instrument of torture in her married life. FGM increases incidences of cesarean and fistula complications at birth. Marital freedom is denied .It makes a woman a land without fence and a well without a cover. FGM opens without mercy hell on earth for a girl child which is a wakeup call for all brave and wise men to fight FGM.. FGM belittle wisdom. It is a barbaric culture imposed on womanhood by parents and the society at large .Song of Solomon 4:12
    It is evident FGM put God at faults for
    providing a girl child with an active sexual organ. They view the active sexual organ of
    a girl child in its Divine active state as evil and a source of immorality. Redemption and salvation for
    themselves is crafted by sexually crippling the girl child in FGM whereby they
    sacrifice the girl child sexual organ to Satan in the name of morality for God.
    Leviticus 19:28-29. By uplifting the sexual organ of a girl child as pillar of
    morality in defiled mutilated state shift the blame game to the sexual organ of
    a girl child as a source of immorality in a community hence all brutalities
    direct against the girl child in all forms of FGM. The blame game is directed
    against God for providing her with un active sexual organ thus they chop her sexual organ to their taste to make her a sexual mute. She live with stolen childhood and womanhood the lest of her lifetime.
    This defeat any sense of humanity in them. It is cruelty on a girl child at
    alter of family and community social holiness from demonic world.
    FGM was authored in Egypt by Pharaoh as Satanic sacrifice to increase pain and wailing in child birth as a Satanic
    sacrifice. The fleshy sexual coals are
    excavated leaving her frigid and rocky thus denying her for live time Divine
    marital gift which she requires in
    marriage for a lively marital relationship with her husband. How stupid a man
    may be, by instinct a man will falter in search of the fleshy coals
    removed in FMG thus leaving him at moral loose for unfulfilled marital
    achievement . The fleshy coals are provided for the benefit of their marriage life. 1Corithians7: 9. The
    fleshy coals helps a woman in marriage to lock in emotionally with her husband
    in a cordial marital relationship. Some parents send their daughters far away to close relatives for retrogressive FGM as a cover up without the girl child knowledge of the adverse side effects on her body and spirit. Today granddaughters are running away from grandparents and aunts since they hold the mutilating blades of tear and terror for their bodies and wise parents are shielding their daughters from them. This they call breakdown of extended families ties which brethren in Christ are ready to uphold for their faith in God and for the spiritual and physical dignity of their daughters. The shedding of the blood and flesh of their daughters in satanic sacrifice in fgm they cannot allow it us uniting force for the extended families unity. Their faith in Christ breaks the yoke of satan.
    It is quite evident parents are under cultural moral slavery siege and ready to sacrifice
    their daughters to FGM at demonic alter of cultures for community social
    acceptance but they are an eye sore before God for performing this type of prostitution . FGM is more of rottenness of mans’ morals as the head of the family. How would parents commit their daughters to FGM so us someone
    can have food for the mouth calling it their trade of life? How could someone
    say it was done in honor of religion where God is mentioned and the clergy
    exist? How will girls ever be compensated after the evil trade of forced FGM is abandoned while their mutilated sexes organs remain and the wounded soul and spirit cry to God Almighty. Many parents
    are still stuck in wilderness of demonic cultures though in institutions of
    Godly worship. Even from time of old women can perform all types of evils counting on their husbands’ support. Israelis women in the Bible told Jeremiah the Prophet that the sacrifices they offered to queen of heaven they did so with the support and knowledge of their husbands. Jeremiah 44:19 Even today women who force their daughters to undergo FGM count on their husbands full support. They confirm their husbands are part of Satanic sacrifice performed on their daughters in FGM when they disregard Godly advice and truth concerning fgm. It is the time parental love and care are nonexistent as the girl child is raised on alter of Satan for fgm for demonic morality chastity with full parental honor and the pleas by young girls for justice fall to deaf ears. The coveted cultural benefits and rights in FGM are left with the parents as the girl child is merchandized at the altar of Satan leaving her empty handed bearing all adverse severe effects and defects in her body and spirit for a life time. For how long will parents hold this form of prostitution dear to their bosom for earthly respect ,honor and social acceptance? Is it that before God our beloved parents are not aware they are in prostitution with their daughters in fgm or they are stiff necked? The earth is drenched in pollution with the innocent blood of young girls and the seed of terror of evils is planted and established. Who will pull out parents stuck in the wilderness of demonic cultures with love and care? FGM is in the bosoms of parents and the community at large. It all boils down to communities social rottenness. The battle
    fields of double faiths range in their hearts and they fail terribly to test of
    faith in God.
    GOD is not a respecter of persons and you cannot modify evils committed by parents to less evils to look upright. No form of FGM is acceptable . To think you can subject girls to less invasive form of FGM is
    spiritually not acceptable . Where Men
    circumcision involves removal of a fold of the fore skin, FGM involves massive dense muscles with high concentration
    of sensitive net work of nerves and soft which leaves a woman sexually crippled out phase with man.
    bone removal. Her bone is left in the air to dry like dead wood. This is not circumcision. It is Sexual excavation. Circumcision involves cutting round a fore skin in man. Which man would ever leave part of his bone cut to dry in the air like dead wood? After FGM there are no bows left for man to hold. Song of Solomon 7:8 .NO blood should be spilled in FGM. Leviticus 19:28-29. God purposed a woman to enjoy sex in marriage. No human being should play God to her life.
    Song of Solomon 2:2-5. Sexual joy is Divine given to her and parents have no rights in sexually crippling her in FGM. Do not give parents a soft landing ground in their evils adventures by making them acceptable social criminals. The youths of today face great moral social battle against FGM which is a must win goal since they are blessed and enlightened with abundant interactive active knowledge concerning ills of FGM. They must not allow themselves to be engulfed in a cocoon of suffering.
    FGM is a satanic faith moral issue hedged on cultural . It is the deadly beastly yoke of Satan on womanhood. Satan activities have camouflaged themselves as Godly believers among believers telling them they assist them in holiness in FGM. FGM is the annual mass sacrifice done by parents to Satan for his glorification. In demonic world they claim FGM make a girl child clean but God says she defiled and made a prostitute sadly without her consent. Can parents take heed to Godly advice and do away with generation to generation prostitution in fgm? If we have to stop FGM it cannot be based only on negative side effects inherited by FGM. Since it is a faith issue one can decide to live bearing all sufferings that come with FGM. It is known
    even clinically trained personnel perform FGM with full background firsthand knowledge of all
    sufferings and shortcoming associated with FGM. They are well paid by those who hunger and thirst to satisfy they cultural based faith attachment in FGM even contrary to moral standards of Godly believers. When FGM is involved, God is of secondary important to them. It is the time Satan is Supreme in their lives when all demonic forces raise against the girl child. The clergy have more work to do in preaching having to bring parents and young men on board to the full knowledge
    of the Word of God. Young men know God told Moses in Spiritual language that FGM is a Satanic sacrifice for non
    believers hidden and preserved in parenthood for acceptance. Leviticus 19:28-29. Young men if you are presented with a
    virgin sexually mutilated without the sparkle of love and a virgin who has her divine splendor of her sex
    organ intact, who would you choose a wife having stood the test of faith in
    Godly manner? The clergy cannot live as though no Satanic sacrifices are performed on the girl child in FGM. In FGM the marriage bed is defiled .Young men have full reality faith in Godly that you share a wife with Satan in FGM.
    You cannot serve God and demons together. The choose is in your heart. Choose
    wisely.
    In Church of Christ, let fathers not exercise the terror of silence which have allowed satan to raid and rain terror on young girls in fgm. Let fathers stand up for the divine rights of their daughters in marriage. Parents owe their sons in laws
    lifetime gratitude for agreeing to marry their daughters whom they sexually
    assaulted and sexually crippled. God has never asked parents to sexually
    cripple their daughters so as to remain virgins and holly. Is holiness attained
    by sexually crippling a girl child acceptable to God’s purposes for her live
    destiny entity? No. There is holiness that pertains to children of God. Fgm is direct assault and insult to her real womanhood.
    The sex organ of a girl child cannot be manipulated through sexual mutilations
    as a gate way for man to heaven. Parents owe their daughters a life time
    apology for their inhuman acts which robbed them their divine marital gifts.
    Parents who force their daughters to undergo FGM exercise the most Dignified
    Unreserved Beastly Cultural Atrocities on the girl
    child with man child at the receiving end as beneficially.FGM remain the most horrible evil coveted by some parents with full support of some grandparents and aunts. Proverbs14:1-2. A foolish woman destroys
    her own house with her own hands. Let parents face the truth and know they have evil thoughts against their girl child in FGM and they are terribly wrong .In the spirit world parents spy their daughters and are envious of their marital bed thus they raid the marriage court in fgm acts. They view their daughters us sexually wild and immoral children who have to be tamed to gain moral control over their bodies in fgm where God has never subjected mankind holiness under the Knife. But who is weak? Men or women. Is the immorality one sided based on women among themselves only? Is the girl child sexually immoral to herself? Who is fooling who? Is the sexual organ of a girls child the pillar of immorality and evils? FGM is the highest unjust sacrifice involving blood ,flesh and bone to Satan which tie parents more to demonic world. Can men cut their penis heads to equalize themselves with women who have lost their clitoris in fgm? In FGM, parents are a curse to a nation. In fgm parents craft and draw holiness for themselves and for the whole family together with the community from fgm thus they cleanse and protect themselves from immoralities in the blood of their daughters. The burden of family and the community holiness is pegged and delivered from the mutilated sex organ of a girl child. It is a demonic way of life. This pertain more to human sacrifice and worship to satan than many would like not to believe they are submerged in demonic practices.
    It is hypocritical and mockery for parents in Church of Christ to spend their early marriage life in double standards life to perpetuate FGM and live in their twilight years as devoted loving caring parents having soiled their hands with the blood of their daughters in a well intended time staged managed shedding of
    blood and flesh of their daughters in FGM in early marriage life as she wade through the jungle of life for demonic chastity sacrifice acceptance . Parents pride themselves in FGM for tearing down the defense and fences of the marriage court a sacrifice to Satan. They do not pride and delight themselves in God. But GOD can never be mocked. Some men force their daughters to undergo FGM under their mothers’ pressure forgetting there are no curses for those in Christ Jesus. Galatians3:10-14, Proverb26:1-2. It is quite evident parents are under cultural moral slavery siege
    and ready to sacrifice their daughters to FGM at alter of demonic
    cultures for community social acceptance.FGM is the historical prostitution and plunder of womanhood bound in cultural respect and honor. Evil committed by parents cannot be justified by existent of time done or by existent of once faith to do it.
    Can a man kneel before God and support FGM. It is awkward to hear men say what is good for a
    woman and not say what God say is good for a woman and him. It seems some
    men want to craft a way of life from the sex organ of women for themselves in name of purity for God. When God told
    Moses that the Israelis fathers shall not subject their daughters to FGM in
    honor of the dead or have sex with them, He did not leave any form of FGM
    for a girl child. To suggest there can be mild form of FGM is not acceptable
    before God. Leviticus 19:28-29. FGM is the annual mass satanic sacrifice done by parents. Once the blood of a girl child is shed in FGM the land is polluted and the country becomes full of all evils. If men have no respect for
    the complex delicate sex organ which is the sanctuary of marriage which their long for and deliver them to this world, how will they have mercy for one another even where they have common faith?
    When the earth is fully polluted in FGM, at a point in
    life ,men turn the country a slaughter house for one another and the
    communities at large. When the demonic world unleash calamities and atrocities on the community, images of suffering that draw waves of emotions and floods of tears are seen The seed of all evils is planted and watered by parents.FGM usher cerebration after the garden of love and joy defense and fences are scrapped out. Men can overturn the suffering girls go through in FGM over night when they are not habitually cheated on issues concerning FGM. They will take a firm stand knowing girls atrocities in FGM resulting in a flood gate of life of sufferings is not their joy and benefit by refusing sharing wives with Satan in FGM which rob her the coals of love. Men must understand and know that FGM is a respected high order of satanic prostitution done by parents with honor when coals of love are sacrificed to Satan. No trade can exist without customers. When men have true caring love and holy concern for our beloved sisters, Satanic parental generations prostitution sacrifices in FGM will be an issue in the forgotten past. Men ought to know and understand that in FGM the devil has invaded the sanctuary of marriage and defiled the fountain. Let your fountain be blessed, cushy and the King of marriage is fully anointed. Let not your fountain be a fountain of terror and horror. Youth should enter marriage with their full bodies integrity intact as virgins of the Lord,1 Corinthians7:36. Which man would not like to have a happy and glorious wife beside him bound together in perfect true love? That bundle cannot be separated. Provebrs5:18-19. Which wise man would prefer a bride prepared for him on hell on earth and sexually crippled in fgm wholly blended with religion by satan ? Men bear the automate change over. Amen. Girls are prepared for them in fgm for marriage .They are the deciding factor which can never be ignored with power to free our sisters from grip of satan in fgm. If men give our dear sisters the loving caring right hand of help in saying no to fgm and fathers lead in saying no to fgm without leaving mothers to have their ways like Eve in the garden of Aden then fgm is doomed forever.
    How would parents commit their daughters to FGM so us someone can have food for the mouth calling it
    their trade of life? How could someone say it was done in honor of religion
    where God is mentioned and the clergy exist? How will ever be girls
    compensated who are forced to FGM in their flower age after abandoning
    the evil trade? Parents and the clergy should know that the mutilated
    injured girls remain and the wounded souls and spirit cry to Almighty God. Many
    parents are still stuck in wilderness of demonic cultures though in
    institutions of Godly worship. Who will pull out parents stuck in the
    wilderness of demonic cultures with love and care? FGM is in the bosoms
    of parents and the community at large. It all boils down to communities social
    rottenness. The battle fields of double faiths range in their hearts and they
    fail terribly to test of faith in God. Can parents be so cruel and evil minded to perform FGM in name of morality in GOD? FGM is the past generations form of prostitution on womanhood with respect , honor and rewards. Let us have fathers who can stand for God with their families when the lest rebel against God. Joshua 24:14-15 .
    The greatest force behind FGM are fathers and young men. It is heart
    breaking to hear women say if it were not of demands by fathers and young
    men behind the sin they will not do it. In FGM parents break the spiritual and physical integrity well being of their daughters. It is all known some men dare not speak against FGM for it propel
    them to political powers. The parents and the whole families political votes are dear to
    them thus they center themselves us champion of FGM as a cultural heritage. Their political powers
    are fueled by blood and flesh of young girls thus weakening laws passed to ban
    FGM. The young girls fate hang out of balance since she cannot count on rescue
    even from her dear brothers. Her fate is sealed in dying hope by those who thirst and hunger for her
    flesh and blood for the injustice of the beloved parents is awful cruel. It is in the hour of need a father turns a cold shoulder to his girl child and commit her to Satan in fgm. The girl child lives with unresolved burning self reserved resentments against her parents but all they see is well to their eyes. The dark embarrassing day of losing her womanhood in FGM remains vivid to her mind. Parents will have their daughters physically but emotionally detached from them in their old age a dilemma and a surprise to them. Their silent heart acre of lack of mutual trust between their daughters will go down to their old age. A great social rift is emerging among the youth and old generation based on increased abundant interactive active knowledge on whole issues based on FGM with youth calling for social justice. Youths are on a race against time whether to subject their marriages to generations prostitution in FGM. Parents can socially lose their children in their old age with phenomenal of being neglected by their children becoming more apparent. FGM condemns a girl child to a life time of sexual slavery. This is the misery bestowed upon her by her parents in honor of the dead which they hold dear to their hearts.
    Parents pride themselves in FGM since they receive their communities social
    recognitions and acceptance at a price of permanently sexually deforming
    their girls in FGM which they can view in a mirror. Parents are in Sodom of their own even in places of
    worship.
    Laws to ban FGM may not eliminate FGM since it can be done clinically
    at home. Parents require deliverance of their souls and spirit to God.
    In their liberated hearts they will not suffer any loose for abandoning FGM
    for their trust in God is paramount. God Himself told Moses that the Israelis
    fathers shall not subject their daughters to FGM in honor of the dead or
    have sex with them making them prostitutes. Leviticus 19:28-29. FGM is a
    Satanic sacrifice involving blood, soft bone and flesh and parents are more bonded to
    demonic world by sacrificing their girl child in FGM . The seed of evils is planted, watered and guarded by parents in joy. Let all Children of Abraham by faith face the full reality of the demands in their faith in God.
    God bless you all united against this demonic cultural practice called FGM, a hard nut to crack preserved and hidden in parenthood for acceptance. It is the time the promises in fgm die out and the demonic world open its’ gates wide for the girl child and closes its’ gates behind her back as she leaves the alter of Satan empty handed for the rest of her life time. Can the young men and girls muscle enough will power and do away with FGM forced down their lives by the old generation? Yes, they can since they are strong with an open mind. They have the divine provision of a happy marriage within their reach. Their marriage belong to them and not to their parents. Your obedience stays within the practices of Godly confined boundaries. God says you are strong and you can overcome the wicked one. 1 john2:14. We must hold the Word of God within its content and contest lest or we be found to have contempt for the Word of God.
    In Church of Christ, men should stop counting their up hold to
    spiritual holiness in reverence to a defiled sexually mutilated sex organ of a
    woman. Some men say when women are sexually crippled, men and women remain
    faithful but to who? Which men are sexually crippled for women to remain holy?
    Is the sexual organ of a woman an institution of worship for men? GOD IS HOLLY.
    Men shouldn’t have defiled faith in God based on crippled sexual organ of a
    woman. Men should love God with a pure heart. The sexual organ of a woman is
    not a stay to his faith in his God. Should a man share a wife with the
    devil? FGM is ill tagged as a benefit to a man child by those who
    perpetuate this demonic sacrifice. Men who view their holiness in God through the mutilated sexual organ of a woman put their faith in God to demonic practices. FGM is a Satanic sacrifice imposed on womanhood by men behind the sin for selfish eroded gratification. Culturally women who had gone FGM as they
    passed child bearing age and hung up the ploughs, the old man would marry
    another young woman who had gone FGM referred to us the wife of his old age
    with desires to have children. No eyes blow were raised against her by the
    other wives since they understood their frigid sexual rocky morbid state. They were not a joy to have as wives in their old age . Love to hem was like surgery awake and they acknowledged the sexually active state of their husband. It was a time their husband was like a sexual beast to them. They sexually off loaded themselves through the young wife of his old aged thus shifting the burden of the curse to the young woman. Parents who perform FGM are a curse to their children and the country not because they have pronounce a curse upon them but they are curse before God to their children and the country for the demonic act in fgm. Where uncircumcised woman is married to a polygamous marriage of circumcised women, they vehemently call for her circumcision since she is like a magnet to their husband. They need him less of her.
    If a man has to be circumcised in the Church of Christ, he should join our sisters in spiritual circumcision for all that is salvation. Colossians 2: 8-12. Roman2:28-29. Can a wise man pride himself before God
    counting the benefits of marrying a prostitute? In Church of Christ, only
    uncultured men in Godly practices, uncouth, no witty and demonic sadist will
    applaud sexual mutilation of young girls.
    Leviticus 19:28-29. FGM is the perennial curse for the girl child and the
    land. The land is polluted and all evils come to the nation.FGM defeat any
    Godly purpose for it . Can any clergy support FGM? Only
    those taught by apostles and ministers of Satan can support FGM. FGM exercise the most Dignified Unreserved Beastly Cultural Atrocities on womanhood which is the deadly yoke of Satan hidden in parenthood for demonic chastity acceptance.
    Corinthians11:13-15. NO FGM WITH GOD .When faithful Abraham the father of faith was commanded by God to be
    circumcised at 99 years old with his son Ishmael at thirteen years old, he obeyed
    God. Sarah and Hagar were not circumcised or any girl child since there is no women circumcision with God. It was a clear
    instruction and Abraham obeyed Jehovah God instructions to the letter. GENESIS
    17: 1-27. Parents only way out of this
    demonic trap is to reconcile back to God together with their daughters by
    asking for unreserved forgiveness and get saved. Since in fgm the girl child is sacrificed in historical generation to generation prostitution and plunder on womanhood bound in cultural respect and honor for the man child evil conceived none existent concealed benefits ,the man child ought to be brought in the front line to fights fgm empowered with full knowledge of all ills involved in fgm. The life time miseries the girl child goes through in fgm is not a gift to a man child. Fgm blends sorrow and suffering for a woman. When the mind of the man child is redeemed from fgm and fathers make a stand against the inherent morally disgusting and offensive satanic fgm, it will be the natural death of fgm . Men have subjected women to their brutal evil discovery of cultural slavery and sexual deprivation of marital joy in fgm as a precondition for love and marriage which they have agreed to, since they feel desperate and defenselessly cornered. Men should not enter into marriage in seeking vain glory of sexual competition with women which raise fgm to make them sexual cripples for men to remain on top since it is a Divine given shared joy. Men should not take pleasure in sexually humiliating and hurting women in fgm. This is a demonic and the most hypocritical selfish life style for a man on earth. Men should enter into marriage within Divine approved order without selfish cultural sexual inclinations . FGM is a satanic sacrifice more tied to man as the enforcer but he does not bear the scaring sufferings women go through silently with scars and no Christian should apply it in life. Christian should eliminate FGM with ability given to us by our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Come and be renewed at the throne of grace for Christ is full of love and mercy for your sanctification and redemption. The cradle of hope in Christ radiates the inner person who forgives in perfect love and cannot be deformed. Let the abundant love of Christ prevail in your yielding life of righteousness. His unfailing love full of grace is sufficient for your triumph future without compromise. The Church is cleansed and restored for His own glory.
    Love covers multitudes of sins and weakness . Jehovah God break the yoke of Satan in FGM at family pillars.
    GOD OUTLAWED FGM WHICH
    WAS FORBIDDEN AND WRITTEN IN SPIRITUAL LANGUAGE. Leviticus 19:28-29. The message is freely given
    purely to the body of JESUS CHRIST worldwide.

    By Br. Robert Munyui Kamunyu.

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